2 Questions to AnswerHow does traditional agriculture differ from modern agriculture?What are the major layers of soil?Where would you find the most amount of living organisms in soil?What are pesticides and why are they used?How are pesticides both beneficial and harmful?
3 AgricultureThe Earth has a limited area of arable land, land that can be used to grow crops.Basic processes of farming include:PlowingFertilizationIrrigationPest control
4 Traditional Agriculture Plows are traditionally pushed by the farmer or pulled by livestock.Helps crops grow by mixing soil nutrients, loosening soil particles, and uprooting weeds.Organic fertilizers, such as manure, are used to enrich the soil.Fields are irrigated by water flowing through ditches.Weeds are removed by hands or machine.
5 Modern AgricultureMachinery powered by fossil fuels is used to plow the soil and harvest crops.Synthetic chemical fertilizers are used instead of manure.Overhead sprinklers and drip systems are used for irrigation.
6 SoilWhy might we refer to fertile soil as the living Earth?
7 Mechanical Weathering How Soil FormsChemical WeatheringMechanical WeatheringMinerals in the rock chemically react with substances to form new materials.**New substanceRocks physically breaking apart.**Same substance, different form
8 How Soil FormsTemperature changes and moisture cause rock to crack and break apart.It can take hundreds or even thousands of years for these geological processes to form a few centimeters of soil.
9 Topsoil The surface layer of soil Usually richer in organic matter Fertile topsoil is composed of living organisms, rock particles, water, air, and organic matter, such as dead or decomposing organisms (humus).Referred to as the A Horizon.
10 SubsoilLarger rock particles with organic matter, and inorganic compounds.Referred to as B Horizon.
11 Rock Particles Rock that has undergone weathering Referred to as C Horizon.
12 BedrockSolid rock layerAlso referred to as Parent Material
13 Soil ErosionErosion is the wearing away of rock or soil by wind and water.About half of the original topsoil in the U.S. has been lost to erosion in the past 200 years.Almost all farming methods increase the rate of soil erosion.
14 Land DegradationLand degradation happens when human activity or natural processes damage the land so that it can no longer support the local ecosystem.Soil usually erodes downhill; soil conservation methods focus on preventing downhill erosion.Contour plowingNo-till farming
15 Enriching SoilInorganic fertilizers (containing nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorous) have increased food production.If erosion occurs in areas where the soil has been fertilized with inorganic chemicals, fertilizers and pesticides may pollute waterways.Compost is used to enhance soil—using both organic and inorganic materials.
16 Pest ControlPest- any organism that occurs where it is not wanted or that occurs in large enough numbers to cause economic damage.Includes: insects, plants, fungi, microorganismsPesticides are chemicals used to kill insects, weeds, and other crop pests.Can also harm beneficial plants, insects, wildlife, and even people.
17 Questions to AnswerHow does traditional agriculture differ from modern agriculture?What are the major layers of soil?Where would you find the most amount of living organisms in soil?What are pesticides and why are they used?How are pesticides both beneficial and harmful?