2Classification = the grouping of objects or organisms based on a set of criteria.
3TAXONOMY = A branch of biology that groups and names organisms.
4I. History A. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Greek philosopher 1st method of classification2 groups: plants & animals
5I. History B. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) Swedish botanist System we still use todayBinomial nomenclature (2 word naming system)Every living organism has a genus name and a species name!
6Genus & Species Name: Genus species: scientific name Ex: Homo sapiens common name Ex: = human beingsscientific name Ex: Acinonyx jubatuscommon name Ex: Cheetah
7Genus & Species Name: Writing scientific names (genus & species): The genus name is capitalized; the species name is lowercaseBoth genus and species names are always:Underlined or Italicized
8II. Why are living things organized? Provides logic and organizationUniversal understanding-useful toolImportant to economy- discoveries!New sources of lumber, medicines, energy, etc…
9III. How are living things classified? A. Taxa- series of categories, each one larger than the previous oneSpecies (only one)GenusFamilyOrderClassPhylumKingdomDomain(Very Broad Category)
10III. How are living things classified? B. Classified by similarities in:Developmental stagesBiochemical analysis (DNA)Behavioral patterns
11IV. DOMAINS:Organisms are classified into domains according to cell type and structureOrganisms are classified into kingdoms according to cell type, structure, and nutrition
122 Cell Types:Eukaryotic cells = have membrane-bound nucleus and organelles; usually more complex than prokaryotic cellsProkaryotic cells = does NOT have a nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles
133 Domains:BacteriaArchea (pronounced- ar KEE uh)Eukarya
14A. Bacteria E. coli Prokaryotes Cell walls contain peptidoglycan (polymer of sugars)Contains Kingdom BacteriaE. coli
15B. Archea More ancient than bacteria Prokaryotes Cell walls DO NOT contain peptidoglycanLive in extreme environmentsBoiling hot springs, salty latkes, thermal vents on the oceans’ floors, mud of marshes where there is NO oxygen
17V. THE SIX KINGDOMS:BACTERIAARCHAEAPROTISTSFUNGIPLANTSANIMALS
18Flow Chart of Domains & Kingdoms: BacteriaEukaryaArchaea6 KingdomsProtistsPlantsFungiAnimals
19A. BACTERIA Cell type –prokaryote Cell walls with peptidoglycan UnicellularAutotroph (organism that makes their own food) or heterotroph (organism that gets its nutrients by feeding on other organisms)
20BACTERIA (continued) Common bacteria Ex: bacteria you would find on your skinEx: streptococcus bacteria causes strep throatEx: E. coliStreptococcusE. Coli
21B. ARCHAEA Cell type –prokaryote Cell walls DO NOT contain peptidoglycanUnicellularAutotroph or heterotrophHot SpringsDeep Sea Vents
22C. PROTISTS Most diverse group Cell type – eukaryote Unicellular and multicellularSome plant-like, animal-like and fungus-likeDO NOT have organsUsually live in moist environmentsEx: paramecium, slime mold, kelps
23C. FUNGI Cell type – eukaryote Most multicellular Heterotrophic - absorb nutrients obtained by decomposing dead organisms and wastes in environmentCell walls with chitin (polymer)Ex: mushrooms, molds
24D. PLANTS Cell type – eukaryote Multicellular Photosynthetic (autotrophs)Most have cellulose in their cell wallsTissues organized into organs (roots, stems, leaves)
25E. Animals Cell type – eukaryote Multicellular Consumers that eat and digest other organisms for foodNo cell wallsHave tissues organized into complex organ systems
26Kingdom Characteristics DomainBacteriaArchaeaEukaryaKingdomProtistsFungiPlantsAnimalsCell TypeProkaryoticEukaryoticCell WallsContains peptidoglycanDoes NOT contain peptidoglycanSome with celluloseChitinCelluloseNO Cell wallsNumber of CellsUnicellularUnicellular & MulticellularMost MulticellularMulticellularNutritionAutotroph or heterotrophHeterotrophAutotroph