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The Plant Kingdom (Part I)

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Presentation on theme: "The Plant Kingdom (Part I)"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Plant Kingdom (Part I)
Kingdom Characteristics

2 Engage Doom’s Day Vault Video

3 Explore Plant Kingdom Lab

4 Explain Multicellular, Eukaryotic, Autotrophic-Photosynthetic
Plant Cells Cell walls of cellulose Chloroplasts Large central vacuole Cuticle: waxy waterproof coating

5 Plant Origin First plants 500 mya Looked like mosses
Probably evolved from green algae Cellulose cell walls Same type of chlorophyll Store excess food as starch

6 Evolution of Plants (Cladogram)
Flowering plants Cone-bearing plants Ferns and their relatives Mosses and their relatives Green algae ancestor Flowers; Seeds Enclosed in Fruit Seeds Water-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue

7 Adaptations of Plants to Land
Seeds (Dormant until water added) Roots Stems Leaf – Autotrophic Organisms Must Conserve Water (Stomata) Reproductive Strategies

8 Roots, Stems, and Leaves Plant Tissues

9 Root, Stem, and Leaf Tissues
Dermal tissue Vascular tissue Ground tissue

10 Plant Tissues Section 23-1 include Dermal tissue Meristematic tissue
Vascular tissue Ground tissue includes includes includes Epidermal cells Xylem Phloem Parenchyma cells Collenchyma cells Schlerenchyma cells includes includes Tracheids Vessel elements Sieve tube elements Companion cells

11 1. The Seed External Structures 1. Seed coat 2. Hilum 3. Micropyle
Internal Structures 1. Embryo plant 2. Cotyledon

12 Germination – To Begin to Grow

13 2. Roots: Anchors Away Functions Anchors the plant
Absorbs water and minerals from soil Stores food

14 Primary Root The first root to develop from the seed.

15 Secondary Roots Develop from the primary root and from themselves.

16 Tap Root System Develops from the primary root.
Reaches deep into the ground Helps the plant during periods of drought.

17 Fibrous Root System Develops when the secondary roots become the main roots. Shallow roots but spread over a broad area. Helps prevent erosion.

18 Cross Section of Plant Root (magnification: 40x)
Epidermis Ground tissue (cortex) Vascular Cylinder Cross Section of Plant Root (magnification: 40x) Endodermis Vascular cylinder Root hairs Phloem Xylem Apical meristem Root cap Zone of maturation Zone of elongation

19 The Root Tip Root cap (Protects the root from abrasion)
Apical Meristem (Produces new cells for growth) Zone of Elongation (Cells elongate allowing the root to grow longer) Zone of Maturation (Cells develop into tissues)

20 3. Stems: The Connector Functions Connects the leaves with the roots
Displays the leaves for maximum sunlight exposure. Stores food Minor photosynthetic ability Contains vascular tissue Phloem – transports sugars from leaves Xylem – transports water and minerals from roots

21 Comparing Primary and Secondary Growth of Stems
Characteristics Where It Occurs Effect on Plant How It Is Produced Primary Growth Secondary Growth At ends of plants Increases plant length By cell division in the apical meristem In stem Increases stem width By cell division in meristems other than the apical meristem

22 Secondary Growth in Stems
A. Vascular cambium appears B. Secondary growth continues C. Mature stem develops Primary phloem Secondary phloem Secondary xylem Primary xylem Bark Wood Secondary phloem Secondary xylem Cork Cork cambium Epidermis Cortex Primary phloem Vascular cambium Primary xylem Pith

23 Layers of a Tree Trunk Wood Bark Cork
Contains old, nonfunctioning xylem that helps support the tree Contains active xylem that transports water and minerals Produces new xylem and phloem, which increase the width of the stem Transports sugars produced by photosynthesis Produces protective layer of cork Contains old, nonfunctioning phloem that protects the tree Xylem: Heartwood Cork Cambium Phloem Vascular Cambium Xylem: Sapwood

24 4. Leaf - Autotrophic Functions Carries on Photosynthesis Stores food
Regulates transpiration through stomata

25 Internal Structure of a Leaf
Section 23-4 Cuticle Veins Epidermis Palisade mesophyll Xylem Vein Phloem Spongy mesophyll Epidermis Stoma Guard cells

26 Internal Leaf Anatomy Cuticle Epidermis
Palisade Mesophyll (chloroplasts) Spongy Mesophyll Vein (xylem and phloem) Air Spaces Lower Epidermis Stomata Guard cells

27 Sugar Transport in Phloem

28 Nutrient Transport Occurs in PHLOEM Pressure-flow hypothesis

29 5. Water Conservation Cuticle Stomata
Waxy outer coating that prevents water loss Stomata Openings for gas exchange Open to release water, Close to conserve

30 Stomata

31 Stomata Guard cells regulate the size of the stoma.
K+ (potassium ions) enter the cells causing them to fill with water. This opens the stoma when they become turgid. A loss of K+ causes the opposite to occur, and they close when they become flaccid.

32 Stoma Open Stoma Closed
Section 23-4 Guard cells Guard cells Inner cell wall Inner cell wall Stoma Stoma Open Stoma Closed

33 Stoma Open Stoma Closed
Section 23-4 Guard cells Guard cells Inner cell wall Inner cell wall Stoma Stoma Open Stoma Closed

34 Transpiration

35 Water Transport Root Pressure Capillary Action Transpirational Pull
Adhesion – attraction between unlike Cohesion – attraction between like Transpirational Pull Pulling water up through the vascular tissue due to evaporation and capillary action

36 6. Reproductive Strategies
Seeds Contains an embryo Contains a food supply Covered by a protective coat Spores Single haploid cell with hard outer wall

37 Elaborate Xylem Demonstration The Magic Toothpick
Linking Up Demonstration Stomata Lab Transpiration Lab

38 Evaluate

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