4 Explain Multicellular, Eukaryotic, Autotrophic-Photosynthetic Plant CellsCell walls of celluloseChloroplastsLarge central vacuoleCuticle: waxy waterproof coating
5 Plant Origin First plants 500 mya Looked like mosses Probably evolved from green algaeCellulose cell wallsSame type of chlorophyllStore excess food as starch
6 Evolution of Plants (Cladogram) Flowering plantsCone-bearing plantsFerns and their relativesMosses and their relativesGreen algae ancestorFlowers; Seeds Enclosed in FruitSeedsWater-Conducting (Vascular) Tissue
7 Adaptations of Plants to Land Seeds (Dormant until water added)RootsStemsLeaf – Autotrophic OrganismsMust Conserve Water (Stomata)Reproductive Strategies
13 2. Roots: Anchors Away Functions Anchors the plant Absorbs water and minerals from soilStores food
14 Primary RootThe first root to develop from the seed.
15 Secondary RootsDevelop from the primary root and from themselves.
16 Tap Root System Develops from the primary root. Reaches deep into the groundHelps the plant during periods of drought.
17 Fibrous Root SystemDevelops when the secondary roots become the main roots.Shallow roots but spread over a broad area.Helps prevent erosion.
18 Cross Section of Plant Root (magnification: 40x) EpidermisGround tissue (cortex)Vascular CylinderCross Section of Plant Root (magnification: 40x)EndodermisVascular cylinderRoot hairsPhloemXylemApical meristemRoot capZone of maturationZone of elongation
19 The Root Tip Root cap (Protects the root from abrasion) Apical Meristem (Produces new cells for growth)Zone of Elongation (Cells elongate allowing the root to grow longer)Zone of Maturation (Cells develop into tissues)
20 3. Stems: The Connector Functions Connects the leaves with the roots Displays the leaves for maximum sunlight exposure.Stores foodMinor photosynthetic abilityContains vascular tissuePhloem – transports sugars from leavesXylem – transports water and minerals from roots
21 Comparing Primary and Secondary Growth of Stems CharacteristicsWhere It OccursEffect on PlantHow It Is ProducedPrimary GrowthSecondary GrowthAt ends of plantsIncreases plant lengthBy cell division in the apical meristemIn stemIncreases stem widthBy cell division in meristems other than the apical meristem
23 Layers of a Tree Trunk Wood Bark Cork Contains old, nonfunctioning xylem that helps support the treeContains active xylem that transports water and mineralsProduces new xylem and phloem, which increase the width of the stemTransports sugars produced by photosynthesisProduces protective layer of corkContains old, nonfunctioning phloem that protects the treeXylem: HeartwoodCork CambiumPhloemVascular CambiumXylem: Sapwood
24 4. Leaf - Autotrophic Functions Carries on Photosynthesis Stores food Regulates transpiration through stomata
25 Internal Structure of a Leaf Section 23-4CuticleVeinsEpidermisPalisade mesophyllXylemVeinPhloemSpongy mesophyllEpidermisStomaGuard cells
31 Stomata Guard cells regulate the size of the stoma. K+ (potassium ions) enter the cells causing them to fill with water.This opens the stoma when they become turgid.A loss of K+ causes the opposite to occur, and they close when they become flaccid.
35 Water Transport Root Pressure Capillary Action Transpirational Pull Adhesion – attraction between unlikeCohesion – attraction between likeTranspirational PullPulling water up through the vascular tissue due to evaporation and capillary action
36 6. Reproductive Strategies SeedsContains an embryoContains a food supplyCovered by a protective coatSporesSingle haploid cell with hard outer wall
37 Elaborate Xylem Demonstration The Magic Toothpick Linking Up DemonstrationStomata LabTranspiration Lab