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PLANT TISSUES. Seed plants have 3 principle organs  1. Roots—absorb water and dissolved nutrients, anchor the plant to ground  2. Stems—is a support.

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Presentation on theme: "PLANT TISSUES. Seed plants have 3 principle organs  1. Roots—absorb water and dissolved nutrients, anchor the plant to ground  2. Stems—is a support."— Presentation transcript:

1 PLANT TISSUES

2 Seed plants have 3 principle organs  1. Roots—absorb water and dissolved nutrients, anchor the plant to ground  2. Stems—is a support system for the plant, nutrient transportation highway, defense from disease and predators  3. Leaves—photosynthesis factories for plants

3 Plant tissue types  1. Dermal tissue  Consists of the single layer of epidermal cells that line the outside of a plant  There is a thick waxy coating on these cell called the cuticle which prevents water loss  In the roots, the root hair are made up of this tissue type and do most of the plant absorption

4 2. Vascular Tissue  This tissue forms the transport system that move water and nutrients throughout the plant  Xylem and Phloem are included in this

5 3. Ground Tissue  These are the cells the lie between dermal and vascular tissue  There are 3 types of Ground tissues  1. Parenchyma  2. Collenchyma  3. Sclerenchyma

6 Parenchyma  Most plants ground tissue is composed primarily of this tissue  Has thin cell walls and large central vacuoles surrounded by a thing layer of cytoplasm  In the leaves they also have chloroplasts (where photosynthesis occurs)

7 Collenchyma  Have strong, flexible cell walls that help support larger plants  They make of the “strings” on celery stalks

8 Sclerenchyma  Have extremely thick, rugged cell walls that make ground tissue tough and strong

9 Plant Growth  Plants grow only at the end of each stem or root, these places are called the apical meristems  Meristems are clusters of cells that can become any type of plant cells (like stem cells in animals), they aren’t differentiated

10 Roots  There are two types of plant roots  1. Taproot One big primary root and secondary are all small  2. Fibrous root Roots branch so much that there is no one single large root

11 Roots  A mature root has all 3 layers of plant tissues  Epidermal, Ground and Vascular  Root hairs do most of the work of absorption These are small root projections off of main roots

12 Stems  Stems have 3 important functions:  1. Producing Leaves, Branches and Flowers  2. Holding leaves up to the sunlight  3. Transporting substances between roots and leaves

13 Stem Growth  Primary Growth  Is growth that increases the length of a plant, it is produced by cell divisions in the apical meristem.  Takes place in all seed plants  Secondary Growth  Growth which increases the width of stems  It takes place in lateral meristematic tissues called vascular cambium (produces new xylem and phloem) and cork cambium (produces bark)

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15 Formation of Wood  Most of what we call wood is actually layers of Xylem  A tree is constantly making new xylem as it grows outward, and inner xylems no longer function  Heartwood is old xylem that no longer conducts water  Sapwood is newer xylem that still conducts water

16 Tree Rings  Tree rings form due to seasonal growth  Typically in the spring nutrients are abundant and the cells grow rapidly  As winter closes in, cell are growing slower and are much smaller and have a darker appearance  Each tree ring indicates a year

17 Leaves  Are structures optimized for absorbing light and carrying out photosynthesis  Leave have blades and petioles  Blades are the flat sections  Petioles are thin stalk that attaches a blade to the stem

18 Stomata and Guard Cells  Leaves run photosynthesis and thereby require gaseous exchange  Stomata are pore like openings in leaves that allow for Carbon dioxide or Oxygen to enter or exit the leaf  Each stoma is protected by two cells called guard cells that can cover or uncover the stoma when needed

19 Open Stoma Closed Stoma

20 Why have Guard cells?  Guard cells keep the stomata open just enough to allow photosynthesis to occur but not so much that they lose an excessive amount of water  On a hot day, the stoma may remain closed  Some desert plants open the stomata only at night  Note… If it is a hot day, a plant will have water pulled out of its leaves from the stomata and have to pull up excessive amounts of water from the soil…This is called transpiration (think evaporation but the water is coming from plants)

21 Transpiration


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