Presentation on theme: "10/22/14 Objective: Students will be able to compare and contrast the philosophes of the Enlightenment. Do Now: What is a philosopher? Agenda: Do Now PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:
10/22/14 Objective: Students will be able to compare and contrast the philosophes of the Enlightenment. Do Now: What is a philosopher? Agenda: Do Now PowerPoint Presentation Graphic Organizer Essential Question: How did Enlightenment thinkers influence the founding of the United States?
The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in Europe during the 18th century in which people began to change their views on the world and on society. The Enlightenment
Enlightenment Emerged out of the Scientific Revolution and culminated in the French Revolution Philosophes=thinkers who believed that the use of reason could lead to reforms of govt., law, and society. Starts in France and spreads throughout Europe. Thought thinking should be based on reasoning not religion and the church.
Scientific Revolution The Enlightenment grew largely out of the new methods and discoveries achieved in the Scientific Revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries. The Connection The Scientific Revolution showed that nature and the universe could be explained through reason, using mathematical precision.
Five concepts that formed the core beliefs of the Enlightenment: 1. Reason-Truth could be discovered through reason/logical thinking 2. Nature-Nature is good and reasonable 3. Happiness- Urged people to seek well- being on earth. 4. Progress- Stressed that society and humankind could improve. 5. Liberty- Called for the rights and liberties for people.
Enlightenment Thinkers Denis Diderot 1713-1784 Adam Smith 1723-1790 Mary Wollstonecraft 1759-1797 Many Enlightenment thinkers were also mathematicians and scientists. They viewed changes in science as going hand in hand with changes in philosophy.
Hobbes From England Wrote Leviathan -Thought people are generally bad Life without strong government is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, & short.” -Hypothesis: Absolute government is needed to control evil behavior Thomas Hobbes
People have a social contract in establishing a government. People get civil rights in return for having a government rule them.
John Locke 1632–1704 English philosopher New ideas about rights of people and their relationship to ruler Government was created for the people If rules did not protect the rights, then people had right to get new government American Revolution resulted from this idea
John Locke Two Treaties of Government Government is formed to protect people’s natural rights and should have limited power. (**rejected absolute monarchy) The government should be accepted by all citizens and people have the right to overthrow it if it fails or takes away people’s natural rights.
Locke --- Natural Rights All people are free, equal and have “natural rights” of life, liberty, and property that rulers cannot take Power is in the people; not in rulers Influenced Thomas Jefferson—Declaration of Independence
Voltaire French philosopher Wrote Candide (1759); Observation-Life is better with liberty “I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Voltaire 1694-1778 Believed in possibility of social change and reform (Progress is possible) Tolerance, reason, freedom of religion and speech Separation of church and state influences our Bill of Rights
Denis Diderot. Created a 28 volume encyclopedia. Purpose to change the general way of thinking. Explained govt., philosophy, and religion through articles by leading thinkers. Govt. felt it was attack on public morals and Pope threatened excommunication to those who read it. Over 4,000 copies were printed between 1751-1789 French Philosopher
Mary Wollstonecraft “ Free and equal” not for women. Women had natural rights but were limited to private sphere Believed women’s first duty was to be a good mother but should be able to decide what is in her own interest without her husband. Wrote 1792-A Vindication on the Rights of Women-called for equal education-which would give them to tools to participate equally with men in public life.
Adam Smith Wrote Wealth of Nations Argued free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. Supply and Demand. Supporter of Laissez faire-felt that govt. had a duty to protect society, administer justices, provide public works.
Montesquieu French philosopher Wrote the book – Spirit of the Laws - 1748 Stated monarchy was not best govt.
Separation of Power Montesquieu believed in idea of separation of powers and checks and balances to divide government into three branches Idea came from England—judicial, legislative, and executive powers Became the framework of the Constitution
Jean Jacques Rousseau Wrote the Social Contract “Man is born free, but everywhere he is in chains.”
Jean Jacques Rousseau 1712 – 1778 General will of people was the deciding factor---not the individual one Majority Rule Social contract—between people and ruler If ruler ceases to protect the ruled, then they are free to choose new ruler Influenced Declaration of Independence
Enlightenment Shapes Independence “All men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness” Governments derive their power and authority from “the consent of the governed” When any government infringes upon individual’s rights, “it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government”
Enlightenment Shapes Government Declaration of Independence -- sought to promise personal freedom to all citizens New form of government - based on the people’s right to have a say Shaped the making of the Constitution –Montesquieu -- the balance of power between three branches of government –Rousseau-- the power of democracy and consent of the people were in the formation of the new government.
“In order to live in society, human beings agree to an implicit social contract, which gives them certain rights in return for giving up certain freedoms.” “People in a state of nature give up their individual rights to a strong power in return for his protection, so social contract evolved out of self-interest.” John Hobbes Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Declaration of Independence Constitution Social Contract How does the Enlightenment Influence the United States?
Separation Of Power Checks And Balances Montesquieu, in his 1748 Spirit of the Laws, expanded on Locke adding a judiciary John Locke, in his 1690 Civil Government, second treatise, separated the powers into an executive and a legislature.
Bill of Rights Freedom of Religion Freedom of Speech Civil Rights "I do not agree with a word you so, but will defend to the death your right to say it. Voltaire
Questions: 1. What was the Enlightenment? 2. What is the purpose of checks and balances? 3. How did the Enlightenment impact the shaping of America?
NameFromWroteMain Ideas HobbesEnglandLeviathanLife without gov’t is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, & short.” Believed in a monarchy Social Contract-People get civil rights in return for having a government rule them LockeEnglandTwo Treatises on Gov’t Govt. exists to preserve people’s natural rights-life, liberty and property. Govt. should be freely formed by the people-if it doesn’t preserve natural rights people can overthrow it. VoltaireFranceCandide“I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it.” Believed in freedom of speech and religion. Church and state should be separate. His ideas influenced the Bill of Rights. Wollstone -craft EnglandA Vindication on the Rights of Women Felt women’s 1 st duty was to be a good mother. Also thought women should have the same rights as men especially in education. If given the same opportunity they could be equal with men.
DiderotFranceEncyclopedia Created a 28 volume encyclopedia which had articles on govt., philosophy, and religion. Opposed by govt. and church. SmithEnglandWealth of Nations Supported Laissez-Faire and felt business followed the Law of Supply and Demand. MontesquieFranceThe Spirit of Laws Monarchy isn’t necessary-believed in separation of powers and checks and balances. Each branch of govt. should be a check to the other. RosseauFranceThe Social Contract Will of the people=Majority Rule Social Contract govt. agrees to rule only so people’s rights, property and happiness are protected-if broken then governed are free to choose new rulers.