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Childhood Obesity Minnesota School of Business Presented by Corissa Aufderhar, SMA.

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1 Childhood Obesity Minnesota School of Business Presented by Corissa Aufderhar, SMA

2 What is Childhood obesity? Overweight and obesity are both labels for ranges of weight that are greater than what is generally considered healthy for a given height. The terms also identify ranges of weight that have been shown to increase the likelihood of certain diseases and other health problems. Body mass index (BMI) is a measure used to determine childhood overweight and obesity. It is calculated using a child's weight and height. BMI does not measure body fat directly, but it is a reasonable indicator of body fatness for most children and teens. A child's weight status is determined using an age- and sex- specific percentile for BMI rather than the BMI categories used for adults because children's body composition varies as they age and varies between boys and girls.

3 What is Childhood obesity? (Cont.) Overweight is defined as a BMI at or above the 85th percentile and lower than the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex. Obesity is defined as a BMI at or above the 95th percentile for children of the same age and sex. How does this happen? Too many calories + Too little physical activity= ENERGY IMBLANCE Other factors: Genes Metabolism Behavior Environment Culture Socioeconomic status

4 Interesting Facts Approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of children and adolescents aged 2—19 years are obese. Since 1980, obesity prevalence among children and adolescents has almost tripled. 1 of 7 low-income, preschool-aged children is obese. County obesity rates are variable within states 2007-2008: Hispanic boys, aged 2 to 19 years more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic white boys Non-Hispanic black girls more likely to be obese than non- Hispanic white girls.

5 An Alarming Fact Kids younger than 6 spend an average of 2 hours a day in front of a screen, mostly watching TV, DVDs, or videos. Older kids and teens spend almost 4 hours a day watching TV, DVDs, or videos. When computer use and video games are included, time spent in front of a screen increases to over 5½ hours a day! Kids who watch more than 4 hours a day are more likely to be overweight compared with kids who watch 2 hours or less.

6 Environmental Factors Sugary drinks and less healthy foods on school campuses Advertising of less healthy foods Variation in licensure regulations among child care centers Lack of daily, quality physical activity in all schools No safe or appealing place, in many communities, to play and be active Limited access to healthy and affordable foods Greater availability of high-energy-dense foods and sugar drinks Increasing portion sizes Lack of breastfeeding support

7 Consequences of Childhood Obesity (Now) High blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In one study, 70% of obese children had at least one CVD risk factor, and 39% had two or more. Increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Breathing problems, such as sleep apnea, and asthma. Joint problems and musculoskeletal discomfort. Fatty liver disease, gallstones, and gastro-esophageal reflux (i.e., heartburn). Obese children and adolescents have a greater risk of social and psychological problems, such as discrimination and poor self-esteem, which can continue into adulthood.

8 Consequences of Childhood Obesity (Later) Obese children are more likely to become obese adults. Adult obesity is associated with a number of serious health conditions including heart disease, diabetes, and some cancers. If children are overweight, obesity in adulthood is likely to be more severe.

9 Ways to Fight Childhood Obesity Whole Community Approach!! Don’t reward kids for good behavior or try to stop bad behavior with treats –come up with other, healthier solutions Don’t maintain a clean plate policy- reinforce the idea of eating till your satisfied, and let the child be the judge Don’t talk about “bad foods” or completely eliminate all sweets and favorite snacks from a child’s diet- this could lead them to rebel and overeat and/or sneak.

10 Current Research Projects The Development of Childhood Obesity: Theory, Methodology & Prevention National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Leann Birch, CCOR ARRA: New Methods for Estimating Effects of Parenting on Child Eating and Over-Weight Northwestern University Leann Birch, CCOR Environmental Influences on Intake and Obesity National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Leann Birch & Barbara Rolls, Nutritional Sciences Primary Care Network for the Treatment of Adolescent Obesity Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Terry Hartman, Nutritional Sciences

11 Resources We Can! y/wecan/about-wecan/index.htm Lets Move! USDA Food Pyramid Kids Health from Nemours on_center.html Actions for Healthy Kids

12 Conclusion

13 Resources ter.html

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