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Obesity India S. Sharp, BSN, RN November 02, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Obesity India S. Sharp, BSN, RN November 02, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Obesity India S. Sharp, BSN, RN November 02, 2013

2 Objectives  Provide knowledge of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, symptoms, & non- pharmacological treatments

3 Obesity  Obesity is a label for ranges of weight that are greater than what is considered healthy for a given height.  Obesity is having an excessive amount of body fat. It increases risk of disease and health problems such as Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, gallbladder disease, cancer, osteoarthritis, and hyperlipidemia. Weight loss can reduce these risks by 10%.  Obesity is a chronic relapsing disease needing management in other disease such as diabetes and hypertension with physical, psychological, and social consequences.  Abdominal obesity, rather than body fat, can be a useful indicator of cardiovascular and cancer related outcomes. Measuring abdominal obesity includes waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio.

4 Epidemiology  More than one-third (35.7%) of the adults in the United States are obese in 2009-2010.  Obesity effects all groups in society, irrespective of age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, educational level, and geographic group.  Adults over the age of 60 were more likely to be obese than younger adults.

5 National Prevalence

6 Pathophysiology Hypertophic versus Hypercellular obesity  Hypertrophic obesity usually starts in adulthood and responds to weight reduction measures.  Hypercellulary obesity typically occurs in persons who develop obesity in childhood or adolescence. Hypercellular obesity may find it difficult to lose weight without surgical intervention.

7 Adult Obesity by BMI Classification of Adult Obesity by BMIBMI (kg/m 2 ) Underweight<18.5 Normal18.5-24.9 Overweight (Pre-obese)25.0-29.9 Obesity30.0-34.9 Severely Obese>40.0 Morbid Obese40.0-49.9 Super Obese>50.0 Super-Super Obese (SSO)> 60.0

8 Etiology  Obesity is the imbalance between energy intake (Eating too much) and energy output (not exercising or too little).

9 Predisposing Factors  Metabolic factors (Leptin levels)  Genetic factors (Family history of obesity)  Level of activity (Lack of exercise/sedentary lifestyle, Television (TV), computer, and hand-held game use more than 3 hours/day, and increase leisure time)  Endocrine factors  Race, sex, and age factors  Ethnic and cultural factors (Ethic background: African American, Hispanic)  Socioeconomic status  Smoking Cessation  Pregnancy and menopause  Psychological factors  History of gestational diabetes  Lactation history in mothers  Dietary habits (consuming too many calories/high fat diet, Poor dietary choices, and/or Readily available food sources, especially fast foods) Predisposing Factors

10 Common Complaints/Signs and Symptoms  Difficulty performing routine daily activities, including hygiene.  Inability or lack of interest in exercising  Shortness of breath and/or asthma exacerbation  Incontinence  Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA)  Infertility/polycystic ovarian syndrome  Symptoms of cholelithiasis (heartburn, indigestion, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, headaches, light or chalky colored stool, and dark urine)  Hypertension

11 Treatment Non-Medical  Diet changes  Low calorie  Increase fruits and vegetables  Eliminate alcohol and sugar-containing beverages  Reduce intake of sweets and sugars  Reduce fat intake  Reduce portion sizes  Increase water intake  Exercise ( Increase activity as tolerated)  Encourage getting up for 10 minutes each hour  Start off with just walking as tolerated

12 Specialist  Dietitian  Psychologist consultation

13 Discussion

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