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General Chemistry Reaction Types

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Presentation on theme: "General Chemistry Reaction Types"— Presentation transcript:

1 General Chemistry Reaction Types
You should know these already Or maybe after a little review

2 All Types of Reactions There are six types of chemical reactions:
Synthesis reactions Decomposition reactions Single displacement reactions Double displacement reactions Combustion reactions Oxidation-Reduction reactions (Later) You need to be able to identify the type of reaction This is the key to equation writing

3 1. Synthesis reactions Synthesis reactions occur when two substances (generally elements) combine and form a compound. (Sometimes these are called combination reactions.) reactant + reactant  1 product Basically: A + B  AB Example: 2H2 + O2  2H2O Example: C + O2  CO2 Draw a small bid eating a worm  becomes big bird

4 Synthesis Reactions Here is an example of a synthesis reaction

5 Synthesis Reactions Hydrogen reacts with oxygen
Iron is left to oxidize completely Sodium metal is placed into fluorine gas Graphite is burned in air

6 2. Decomposition Reactions
Decomposition reactions occur when a compound breaks up into the elements or in a few to simpler compounds 1 Reactant  Product + Product In general: AB  A + B Example: 2 H2O  2H2 + O2 Example: 2 HgO  2Hg + O2 Draw an egg hatching forming a turtle and an empty egg.

7 Decomposition Reactions
A view of a decomposition reaction:

8 Decomposition Reactions
Water is electrolyzed Molten calcium chloride is ionized Hydrogen peroxide is left in an open container

9 3. Single Replacement Reactions
Single Replacement Reactions occur when one element replaces another in a compound. A metal can replace a metal (+) OR a nonmetal can replace a nonmetal (-). element + compound product + product A + BC  AC + B (if A is a metal) OR A + BC  BA + C (if A is a nonmetal) remember the cation always goes first! Nonmetal reactivity is from top to bottom Draw man + dancing couple  other man + dancing couple Men switch places

10 Single Replacement Reactions
A view of a single replacement reaction:

11 Single Replacement Reactions
Sodium chloride solid reacts with fluorine gas Aluminum metal reacts with aqueous copper (II) nitrate

12 Single Replacement Reactions
Lithium is placed in a solution of silver nitrate Calcium bromide is treated with chlorine gas

13 4. Double Replacement Reactions
Double Replacement Reactions occur when a metal replaces a metal in a compound and a nonmetal replaces a nonmetal in a compound Compound + compound  product + product AB + CD  AD + CB Draw: Fat man with hat + thin man with hat  switch hats. This man gets face covered by hat.

14 Double Replacement Reactions
Think about it like “foil”ing in algebra, first and last ions go together + inside ions go together Example: AgNO3(aq) + NaCl(s)  AgCl(s) + NaNO3(aq) Another example: K2SO4(aq) + Ba(NO3)2(aq)  KNO3(aq) + BaSO4(s) Show the change of places of the species 2

15 Double Replacement Reactions
Sodium sulfide is mixed with hydrochloric acid Lead (II) nitrate is mixed with calcium chloride Lithium hydroxide is mixed with hydrofluoric acid

16 5. Combustion Reactions Combustion reactions occur when a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen gas. This is also called burning!!! In order to burn something you need the 3 things in the “fire triangle”: 1) A Fuel (hydrocarbon) 2) Oxygen to burn it with 3) Something to ignite the reaction (spark)

17 Combustion Reactions In general: CxHy + O2  CO2 + H2O
Products in combustion are ALWAYS carbon dioxide and water. (although incomplete burning does cause some by-products like carbon monoxide) Combustion is used to heat homes and run automobiles (octane, as in gasoline, is C8H18)

18 Combustion Example C5H O2  CO2 + H2O Write the products and balance the following combustion reaction: C10H O2 

19 Combustion Reactions Methane is burned Propane is burned
Decane is burned Propene is burned

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