Presentation on theme: "Training programs Design your own for you and your personal goals!"— Presentation transcript:
1 Training programs Design your own for you and your personal goals! What do you want to achieve this term???
2 Why have a training program? Something to stick to/keeps you focusedKnow if you’re improvingPlan training time in your busy scheduleTo get better!
3 Benefits of sport and exercise Regular exercise improves health and fitness.Health is defined as a state of complete mental, physical and social well-beingFitness is the ability to meet the demands of the environment.Mental benefits include:improved confidencerelief of stress/tensionPhysical benefits include:losing weightimproved postureimproved body shapeSocial benefits include:meeting peoplemaking friendsSpiritual benefits?
4 Health related fitness factors Everyone needs to have a level of fitness for everyday activities. Exercise improves the health related fitness factors which are also useful to sportspeople. These are:Cardiovascular fitness is the ability to exercise the whole body for long periods of time and is sometimes called stamina. Test:Muscular strength is the amount of force a muscle can exert against a resistance. It helps sportspeople to hit, tackle and throw. Test:Muscular endurance is the ability to use voluntary muscles many times without becoming tired. It helps sportspeople to sprint or repeat quick actions for longer. Test:Flexibility is the range of movement possible at a joint. It helps performers to stretch and reach further. Test:Body composition is the percentage of body weight which is fat, muscle or bone. It helps sportspeople depending on the type of sport they play, eg heavy rugby players are more effective in the scrum than lightweight players, but light long distance runners will always beat heavyweights. Test:
5 Skill related fitness factors Skill related fitness factors are essential for success in sport. These are:Agility - the ability to change the position of the body quickly and with control. This helps team players dodge their opponents. Test:Balance - the ability to retain the centre of mass above the base of support when stationary (static balance) or moving (dynamic balance). This helps gymnasts maintain their position and prevents games players from falling over at speed. Test:Co-ordination - the ability to use two or more body parts together. This helps all athletes to move smoothly and quickly especially when also having to control a ball. Test:Power - the ability to use strength at speed. This helps athletes to jump high, throw far or sprint quickly. Power = Strength x Speed. Test:Reaction time - the time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. This helps swimmers to make a fast start. Test:Speed is how quickly an individual can move. This helps all games players to move into position or get away from opponents quickly. Test:
6 IMPORTANT:An ideal training programme will be designed based on the individuals personal goalsA successful training programme will meet individual needs based on age, gender, fitness level and the sport for which we are training.A successful training programme will also include exercise in the correct heart-rate target zone.
7 P.O.T.s – Principles of Training Specificity – training must be matched to the needs of the sporting activity to improve fitness in the body parts the sport uses.Overload - fitness can only be improved by training more than you normally do. You must work hard.Progression – start slowly and gradually increase the amount of exercise and keep overloading.Reversibility – any adaptation that takes place as a result of training will be reversed when you stop training. If you take a break or don’t train often enough you will lose fitness.Recovery – it’s essential to recover from a exercise session as this is when the gains are made.
8 Use the FITT principles to add the detail Frequency - decide how often to train.Intensity - choose how hard to train.Time - decide how long to train for.Type - decide which methods of training to use.
9 M.O.T.s - Methods of training Broadly, training can be aerobic or anaerobic:Aerobic training improves cardiovascular fitness. In aerobic exercise, which is steady and not too fast, the heart is able to supply enough oxygen to the muscles.Anaerobic exercise is performed in short, fast bursts where the heart cannot supply enough oxygen to the muscles. Anaerobic training improves the ability of the muscles to work without enough oxygen when lactic acid is produced.
10 Specific training methods Circuit training involves performing a series of exercises in a special order called a circuit. Each activity takes place at a 'station'. It can be designed to improve speed, agility, coordination, balance and muscular endurance. Example:Interval training involves alternating between periods of hard exercise and rest. It improves speed and muscular endurance. Example:Continuous training involves working for a sustained period of time without rest. It improves cardio-vascular fitness. Example:Cross training involves using another sport or activity to improve your fitness. It happens when an athlete trains in a different environment. For example a volleyball player uses the power training for that sport to help with fitness for long jump. Example:Fartlek or 'speed play' training involves varying your speed and the type of terrain over which you move. It improves aerobic and anaerobic fitness. Example:Resistance training uses weights or your own body weight to provide resistance to the muscles. It improves muscular strength (high weight, low reps), muscular endurance (low weight, high reps) and power (medium weight and reps performed quickly). Example:
11 Stages of a typical training session 1. Warm-upWhole body exercise to raise heart rate and body temperature.Stretching to prepare muscles, ligaments and joints.Practising skills and techniques to be used in the session.2. Main activity - this could be:Fitness training - which may be linked to repeated technique work.Skill development - drills or team practices.Modified or Conditioned Games.3. Warm down (sometimes called cool down)Light exercise to help remove carbon-dioxide, lactic acid and other waste products produced by intense exercise.Gentle stretching to prevent muscle soreness and stiffness later.