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ZEST Gender issues in Agriculture
ZEST This is the state of being male or female (typically used with reference to social and cultural differences rather than biological ones) male or female Socially defined roles of each sex Relations between them (men and women) Relations between men Relations between women What is gender?
ZEST Gender roles – social definition of men and women. They demarcate responsibilities between males and females in: Social and economic activities Access to resources Decision making authority Gender relations - these are ways in which culture defines rights, responsibilities and the identities of men and women in relation to one another. Definition of gender cont
ZEST Gender issues need to be considered when designing and implementing agricultural activities. Exercise In two groups identify the Specific roles, responsibilities, activities, ownership of resources and decision-making opportunities between women and men in the agricultural sector. Do you think we have a gender problem in Zimbabwe (Agricultural sector)? NB/ it is of paramount importance to note that all these attributes depend on a specific society, culture, classes of people, religion and age of the men and women involved Gender in relation to agriculture
ZEST Gender based inequalities along the food chain (production, processing and sale of produce) This affects production and ultimately living standards of people. Refer to the dairy issue How gender affects agriculture and food security
ZEST Both males and females should be afforded equal opportunities and fair distribution of resources Gender equality refers to equal rights, responsibilities and opportunities that all persons should enjoy, regardless of whether one is born male or female. It is not about one group gaining more power to the detriment of the other. Gender equality as a solution
ZEST Equality between women and men includes the following elements (in terms of agriculture and in our workplace): Equality of opportunity and treatment in employment (e.g. fair representation of both sexes in management committees). Equal remuneration for work of equal value Equal access to safe and healthy working environments and to social security Equality in association and collective bargaining Equality in obtaining meaningful career development A balance between work and home life that is fair to both women and men Equal participation in decision-making at all levels Gender equality cont
ZEST The FAO’s State of Food and Agriculture 2010–2011 highlights the need to close the gender gap in: Access to agricultural resources, education, extension, financial services, and labour markets; To invest in labour-saving and productivity-enhancing technologies and infrastructure to free women’s time for more productive activities; To facilitate women’s participation in flexible, efficient, and fair rural labour markets. More vigorous engagement with women’s groups as full partners in agricultural development Gender equality cont’
ZEST This is a process of ensuring that all women as well as men’s experiences are integral to the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of all legislation, policies and programmes so that women and men benefit equally. There is a strong need to move away from gender blind programs that ignore gender differences. During the design phase of all agricultural projects, there is need to consider all the needs and concerns of 100% of their beneficiaries Gender mainstreaming
ZEST Sex disaggregated data must be collected: differentiating poverty, income, participation and educational issues for both men and women. Gender analysis should inform our work: qualitative differences relating to men and women. Different roles and responsibilities of men and women, assets and power issues. Both men and women should be consulted during planning, monitoring and evaluation of projects Essentials of gender mainstreaming in programming
ZEST Different roles and responsibilities, experience, priorities and capacities of both men and women need to be identified (who does what and why). Unless we know who is affected and in what way and by what issue we cannot respond appropriately This helps in avoiding incorrect assumptions and therefore leads to better programming Gender analysis
ZEST 10 key questions for gender analysis
ZEST A monitoring and evaluation system ensures that the project is being efficiently implemented, achieving the set objectives and that the project reaches the intended target group. A gender responsive monitoring and evaluation system is useful in identifying and integrating gender issues in the project cycle. It will ensure that the different needs of men and women have been efficiently addressed achieving the set objectives for men and for women. Hence a gender sensitive M/E system will ensure that the project is being efficiently implemented and reaches its intended beneficiaries and objectives. Gender sensitive monitoring and evaluation
ZEST Clearly, constraints to agricultural productivity are often gender- based. Thus, if planners are unaware of gender-based differences in agriculture, program outcomes may not be achieved as planned. Attention to gender-based differences in agricultural activities, resources and benefits can improve the outcomes of agricultural development interventions. Conclusion
ZEST Do you think Zimbabwe as a country is vying for gender equality, if so how? Group exercise
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