Presentation on theme: "ADVERTISING AND MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS At its simplest, marketing involves moving goods from the producer to the consumer.It involves the selling of."— Presentation transcript:
ADVERTISING AND MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS At its simplest, marketing involves moving goods from the producer to the consumer.It involves the selling of goods that dont come back to people who do. The 4 Ps of Marketing Product Price Place Promotion The fourth P, promotion, has its own communication tools which are called the communications mix or the promotions mix
THE COMMUNICATIONS MIX The four essential elements of the communications mix are: 1. Advertising 2. Sales Promotions 3. Personal Selling 4. Public Relations Good marketing communications can help an organisation to succeed and grow by getting its messages across in a focused and cost-effective way
THE COMMUNICATIONS MIX 1. Advertising 2. Selling 3. Sales Promotion 4. Direct Marketing 5. Publicity (and public relations) 6. Sponsorship 7. Exhibitions 8. Packaging 9. Point-of-sale and merchandising 10. Internet 11. Word-of-mouth 12. Corporate Identity
COMMUNICATION What is communication? Communication can be defined as a transactional process between two or more parties whereby meaning is exchanged through the intentional use of symbols.
Key points: Communication is: intentional all the parties are involved in the process. It is not a one-way process. it is symbolic (words, pictures music and other stimulants are used to convey meaning
For effective communication to take place: the sender and the receiver of the message must share a common view of what the symbols actually mean. NOISE: the surrounding distractions present during the communications process. example:
The simple communications model SENDER MESSAGE RECEIVER This model assumes that the sender is active, the receiver is inactive or passive and that the message is understood properly.
SenderEncodingMessageDecodingReceiver Noise Feedback The Communications Process The sender dresses up or codes up the message in a certain way using the appropriate symbols. (each TV advert is designed to convey some meaning)
The message is sent through a media to the receiver. If it gets through all the noise, the message is then decoded by the receiver. (you see and understand the message) The receiver may decode the message correctly or incorrectly and may then give some feedback ( change in behaviour, facial expression etc. )
Signs and Meanings Signs falls into three categories: 1. ICON:A sign that looks like or represents an object in such a way that most people would recognise it. 2. INDEX: A sign that relates to an object by casual connection. 3. SYMBOL: An artificial sign which has been created for the purpose of providing meaning.example : words
Meanings of words can be: denotative (having the same meaning for all) or connotative (having a meaning which is unique to the individual). Because connotative meanings vary among individuals,marketers need to understand their target audience well. Communication errors can result in loss of sales and market share, and can affect the survival of the company..
THE ADOPTION MODEL Communication does not create an impact or result in a desired response all at once. Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption
Culture Different cultures have different characteristics and have different meanings and interpretations for different issues, symbols, body language etc. Ethnocentrism: is the practice of assuming that other cultures think and believe as we do. It applies to all cultures. It is the tendency for people to believe that their own culture is the right one and all other cultures is at best a poor copy.This easily leads to misunderstandings and rejection of communication and is very common.
Reasons for miscommunication Miscommunication or errors in communication can result due to several different reasons. 1. Implication: Miscommunication may result because the recipient may read a different meaning in the communication that that was intended by the sender. 2. Distortion: There may be changes in the message due to outside influences. For example: a person may have had a bad experience of an Italian product, and so develops a dislike for all Italian products. Any message in adevrts for Italian products may be distorted because of this.
3. Disruption: Damage to the message caused by circumstances ( the customer may develop a dislike for the salesperson and stops the communication) and sometimes the misconstruction of the message.Disruption is only possible when there is dailogue. 4. Confusion: There may be conflicting information about the same product: (for example: from an advertisement may say a particular thing about a product while a salesperson may state something conflicting ). 5. Disagreement: The recipient understands, but does not accept or agree with the message. This may happen because the recipient has a bias against the source or the style of the message, or because there is no common perception or reference between the sender and recipient. 6. Personal Transformation: The recipient may not be willing to be open minded about the communication. If the recipient has already decided that the communication is not going to any difference to him, then in effect he will not be listening to the message.