2 An Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy – the study of the structure and shape of the body and body parts and their relationship to one another.Physiology – study of how the body & its parts work or function
3 Levels of Organization ATOMCELLTISSUEORGANORGAN SYSTEMORGANISM
5 ORGAN SYSTEM OVERVIEW SYSTEMS HAVE A PRIMARY FUNCTION CLOSELY INTERRELATEDSYSTEMS INCLUDE: INTEGUMENTARY, IMMUNE, SKELETAL, MUSCULAR, NERVOUS, ENDOCRINE, CIRCULATORY, LYMPHATIC, RESPIRATORY, DIGESTIVE, URINARY, REPRODUCTIVE
6 Skeletal System Bones/cartilage/joints/ligaments/tendons Supports (provides framework)ProtectionProduces Blood cellsMineral Storage
7 Muscular System Muscles Skeletal - Allows locomotion Cardiac – Heart MuscleSmooth – surrounds blood vessels and hollow organs
8 Cardiovascular System Heart, Blood vessels and BloodTransportation of blood which carries oxygen, CO2, nutrients, and wasteWhite blood cells and chemicals in blood protect body from invaders
9 Respiratory SystemNasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungsExchange of gases – CO2 and O2
11 Digestive SystemMouth, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines and rectum, anusBreaks down ingested food for absorption, eliminates undigested foods as fecesLiver secretes bile – breaks down fatsPancreas secretes insulin – control sugar levels
12 Excretory (Urinary) System Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethraEliminates urea (nitrogen containing waste) from breakdown of proteinsEliminates urineRegulates water and salt balance
13 Integumentary System Skin Waterproofs body Cushion, protects deeper tissue from injuryBarrier from invadersExcretes salts and urea via perspirationRegulation body temperature
14 Lymphatic System Lymph and Lymph vessels Cleanse blood and house white blood cellsReturns leaked fluid to blood
15 Immune System Protection against viruses and bacteria Pathogen is a disease causing agentWhite blood cells are primary fighting cells
16 What is Immunity?Nonspecific Defense– the fortress walls of the immune system—keeps everything out and guard against all infectionsSpecific Defense– security guards – track down harmful pathogens that have managed to break through the body’s nonspecific defense
17 Nonspecific Defense First Line – Skin Second Line - Inflammatory Response due to tissue damage caused by injury or infection – Fever
18 Specialized Immune System Antibodies are special proteins that help destroy disease-causing organisms.Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response
19 Specific DefenseImmune Response - If a pathogen gets past nonspecific, the immune system reacts with a series of events that attack disease causing agent.Antibody is protein that helps destroy pathogen.Antibody binds to the surfaces of bacteria, they mark the cells.
20 Passive ImmunityPassive immunity only last a short time. The antibodies are borrowed.Maternal immunity – baby get passive immunity from mother’s milkTravelers given antibodies against tropical diseases.
21 Active Immunity Vaccination The injection of a weakened or mild form of a pathogen to produce immunity is known as a vaccination. This is known as active immunity.Weakened viruses are used to stimulate your body to make antibodies. Your body is then prepared to fight if virus enter your body
22 Nervous System Brain, Nerves, Spinal Cord Responds to internal and external stimuliStimuli is any change in the environmentCentral Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
23 Basic Part of the Nervous System Neuron – messages are picked up from the environment or other neurons
24 SynapseThe gap between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another.Neurotransmitter – a chemical that carries messages between different nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles.
25 Three types of NeuronsSensory Neurons – Pick up stimulus from the outside environment or from inside the body. These are found in organs called receptors. (skin, eyes ears, nose, tongue, glands) They transmit the message to the interneuron.Interneurons – receives message from sensory neuron and interpret them. They then decide where they should be sent.Motor Neuron – Receives messages from interneurons and sends them to organs called effectors (muscles and glands)
31 Reproductive System Male – testes, scrotum, penis Produce sperm and secondary sex characteristics (testosterone)Female – ovaries, fallopian tubes (oviducts) uterus, vaginaProduce egg and secondary sex characteristics (estrogen)
32 Development of Offspring Gametes – reproductive cells (egg and sperm)Fertilization occurs in the oviduct1st 8 weeks - EmbryoDevelopment of fetus in uterus