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Psychology Scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes Scientific method-(set of steps) Behavior (adjustment to environment)

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Presentation on theme: "Psychology Scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes Scientific method-(set of steps) Behavior (adjustment to environment)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Psychology Scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes Scientific method-(set of steps) Behavior (adjustment to environment) Individual Mental process (human mind)

2 Goals Describe-data, observations, analysis

3 Goals Explain-find patterns, why?
Orgasmic: inner determinants of an organism Dispositional: in human or animal occurrences of organismic variables Situational or environmental variables: external influence

4 Goals Predicting Scientific vs. Causal Scientific-relation of events
Casual-condition under change

5 Goals Control starting, stopping, maintaining, strengthening, weakening a behavior

6 History of Psychology Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Dualism (1600)
mind controlled by person, not gods Dualism (1600) mind+body separate Descartes-Mind controls body ( )

7 William Wundt (1879) 1st experimental Psy. Lab Structuralism
Study of the structure of mind + behavior All human mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events Rejections to structuralism Reductionism-over simplified Elemental-did not look at whole Mentalistic-only verbal human

8 William James (1890) Functionalism
-learned habits that enabled organism to adapt, function and survive in their environment

9 John Dewey (1920’s) Founded the school of functionalism

10 Modern Psychological Approaches
Biological Focus on genes, brain, nervous and endocrine systems to identify behaviors Psychodynamic Driven by powerful inner forces Unconscious Freud Behaviorist Measurable or observable behavior Humanistic People in inherently good, striving for maximum potential Rogers, Maslow Cognitive Stresses human thought Evolutionary Mental abilities adapted over millions of years

11 Psychology Scientific study of the behavior of individuals and their mental processes Scientific method-(set of steps) Behavior (adjustment to environment) Individual Mental process (human mind)

12 Scientific Method Hypothesis Test hypothesis
Organize and report on Data Conclusion

13 Bias Due to personal motives, expectations

14 Standardization Uniform procedures in treating things in an experiment

15 Variable Factor that varies in amount or kind

16 Independent vs. Dependent
Free to vary vs. acted upon (changes)

17 Confounding Variable Stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces

18 Expectancy Effects Experimenter manipulates the situation creating expected result.

19 Placebo effect

20 Control Procedures Double blind Between Subject designs
Keep both assistants + participant unaware Between Subject designs Random assignment

21 Representative Sample
Cannot get everyone take small sample that represents population

22 Within-subjects design
Use subject as their own control

23 A-B-A Design A-baseline B-treatment A-Return to Baseline

24 Correlation Methods Figure which 2 variables, traits, or attributes are related correlation coefficient (r) 1.0 to –1.0

25 Reliability Test produces similar scores each time

26 Validity Test measures what it is intended to measure

27 Self Reported Measures
Observe and report one’s own behavior

28 Behavioral Measures Overt actions + reactions that are observed + recorded not self reported

29 Case Study Intensive study of one or a few

30 Ethics Risk vs. Brains Informed consent Intentional Deception Animals

31 Goals Describe-data, observations, analysis

32 Goals Explain-find patterns, why?
Orgasmic: inner determinants of an organism Dispositional: in human or animal occurrences of organismic variables Situational or environmental variables: external influence

33 Goals Predicting Scientific vs. Causal Scientific-relation of events
Casual-condition under change

34 Goals Control starting, stopping, maintaining, strengthening, weakening a behavior

35 History of Psychology Socrates, Plato, Aristotle Dualism (1600)
mind controlled by person, not gods Dualism (1600) mind+body separate Descartes-Mind controls body ( )

36 William Wundt (1879) 1st experimental Psy. Lab Structuralism
Study of the structure of mind + behavior All human mental experience can be understood as a combination of simple elements or events Rejections to structuralism Reductionism-over simplified Elemental-did not look at whole Mentalistic-only verbal human

37 William James (1890) Functionalism
-learned habits that enabled organism to adapt, function and survive in their environment

38 John Dewey (1920’s) Founded the school of functionalism

39 History of Psychology

40 Modern Psychological Approaches
Biological Focus on genes, brain, nervous and endocrine systems to identify behaviors Psychodynamic Driven by powerful inner forces Unconscious Freud Behaviorist Measurable or observable behavior Humanistic People in inherently good, striving for maximum potential Rogers, Maslow Cognitive Stresses human thought Evolutionary Mental abilities adapted over millions of years

41 Scientific Method Hypothesis Test hypothesis
Organize and report on Data Conclusion

42 Bias Due to personal motives, expectations

43 Standardization Uniform procedures in treating things in an experiment

44 Variable Factor that varies in amount or kind

45 Independent vs. Dependent
Free to vary vs. acted upon (changes)

46 Confounding Variable Stimulus other than the variable an experimenter explicitly introduces

47 Expectancy Effects Experimenter manipulates the situation creating expected result.

48 Placebo effect No experimental manipulation

49 Placebo Effect

50 Control Procedures Double blind Between Subject designs
Keep both assistants + participant unaware Between Subject designs Random assignment

51 Representative Sample
Cannot get everyone take small sample that represents population

52 Within-subjects design
Use subject as their own control

53 A-B-A Design A-baseline B-treatment A-Return to Baseline

54 Correlation Methods Figure which 2 variables, traits, or attributes are related correlation coefficient (r) 1.0 to –1.0

55 Reliability Test produces similar scores each time

56 Validity Test measures what it is intended to measure

57 Self Reported Measures
Observe and report one’s own behavior

58 Behavioral Measures Overt actions + reactions that are observed + recorded not self reported

59 Case Study Intensive study of one or a few

60 Ethics Risk vs. Brains Informed consent Intentional Deception Animals

61 Darwin (1831) Natural Selection
Favorable adaptations to features of the environment allow some members of a species to reproduce more successfully that others Finches Galapagos Islands Survival of the fittest

62 Genotype Genetic structure from parent

63 Phenotype Observable characteristics

64 DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
Contain genes

65 Heredity Passing on traits from parent to offspring

66 Genetics Study of the inheritance of physical + psychological traits from ancestors

67 Genes Basic units of heredity

68 Human Behavior Genetics
Explore the link between inheritance + behavior

69 Sociobiology Evolutionary explanation for social behavior + systems

70 Neuroscience Scientific study of the brain + links to activity + behavior

71 Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Record electric brain activity

72 Positron-Emissions Tomography (PET) Scans
Given “safe” radiation that goes to brain to see activity in brain

73 Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Radio waves + magnetic fields to see brain image

74 Functional MRI MRI + PET

75 The Nervous System 3 major classes of neurons
1) sensory – toward (CNS) 2) motor – away (CNS) 3) interneurons – bridges between neurons

76 Central Nervous System
Composed of neurons Brain + spinal cord

77 Peripheral Nervous System
Connect CNS to body periphery

78 Somatic Nervous System
Regulates skeletal, muscles + skin

79 Autonomic Nervous System
Controls body’s involuntary motor responses Sympathetic = emergency Parasympathetic = routine internal operations

80 Nervous system

81 The Nervous System Neuron
Cell to receive, process and transmit information to other cells Dendrites Branched fibers of neurons that receive incoming signals Soma – Cell body of a neuron Contain nucleus + cytoplasm Integrates info. Axon Extended fiber of a neuron, nerve impulses pass soma to terminal buttons Terminal Buttons Bulblike structure that stimulate glands, muscles or other neurons

82 Nerve

83 The Nervous System Glia Cells that hold nerves together
Remove dead neurons Stops poisons in blood from reaching brain

84 The Nervous System Excitatory-fire Inhibitory-don’t fire

85 The Nervous System Action Potential All – or – None Law
Nerve impulse released All – or – None Law Size of potential unaffected by increased intensity Refractionary Period Rest period-nerve cannot fire Synapse Gap between one neuron+another Transition Neurotransmitters Chemicals released from one neuron to another 60 diff. chemicals

86 The Brain Electronic stimulations Broca’s area Lesions
Thoughts into speech or sign Lesions Injuries or dead areas of brain

87 The Brain Structures Brain Stem Regulates internal organs
Medulla-heart, breathing, blood pressure Pons-Bridge-connects spinal cord with brain Reticular Formation Spinal cord, alerts cerebral cortex Thalamus Channels incoming sensory information to appropriate area of cerebral cortex Cerebellum Balance, coordination

88 Brain Structure - Limbic System
Regulates emotional behavior, motivation+memory Body temp., blood pressure, blood sugar 3 structures Hippocampus Explicit memories Amygdale Emotions+emotional memory Hypothalamus Motivated behavior (eating, drink, sex) Keeps bodies homeostasis (balance)

89 Hypothalamus

90 Brain Structure - Cerebrum
Regulates higher cognitive + emotional functions Cerebral cortex Outside 1/10 of cerebrum 2 halves cerebral hemispheres Corpus callosum Separated cerebral hemispheres Mapping Central sulcus-vertical Lateral fissures-horizontal

91 Brain Structure

92 Cerebrum Cont. Frontal lobe Parietal Lobe Occipital lobe Temporal lobe
Motor controls + cognitive activities Parietal Lobe Sensations (limbs) Touch, pain, temps Occipital lobe Vision (eyes) Temporal lobe Hearing (ears) Motor cortex Voluntary muscle control Approx. 600

93 Brain Structure

94 Cerebrum Cont. Somatosensory cortex Auditory cortex Visual cortex
Temp, touch, pain (lips, tongue, index finger) Auditory cortex Both ears/both lobes Visual cortex Both eyes-retina Association cortex Planning and decision making Wernicke’s Area Spoken language

95 Hemispheric Lateralication
Things happen on different sides of brain, + communicate through the corpus callosum i.e.. Left-speech

96 Endocrine System Network of glands that secrete hormones (chemical messengers). Growth, mood, sex Pituitary Gland “Master Gland” Secretes – testosterone - estrogen Other glands Thyroid, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes

97 Endocrine System

98 Sensation Stimulation of a sensory receptor gives rise to neural impulses which give awareness to conditions inside or outside the body

99 Psychophysics Study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the behavior or mental experiences the stimuli evoke Founder –Gustav Fechner Absolute threshold Smallest unit or minimal amount of physical energy needed to produce a sensory experience. Amount of energy related to intensity of experience.

100 Psychophysics Psychometric function
A graph that shows the % of detections at each stimulus intensity

101 Psychophysics Sensory Adaptation
Diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to prolonged stimulus input. (stinky room)

102 Psychophysics Response bias-favor responding in a particular way.
Signal detection theory (SDT) Helps combat response bias Initial sensory process Separate decision process

103 Psychophysics Difference thresholds
Smallest physical difference between 2 stimuli that can still be recognized as a difference Just noticeable difference (JND) Weber’s law Size of a difference thresholds is proportional Lmm/10mm=.1; 2mm/20mm=.1 +-I/I=K

104 Sensory Physiology Biological mechanisms (eye, mouth, ear) convert physical events into neural events. Sensory receptors Specialized cells that convert physical signals into cellular signals that are processed by the nervous system Transduction Transforming one energy into another sound or light- neural impulses

105 Visual System (eye) Pupil – opening in iris-light passes through
lens – focuses light Accommodation-the ciliary muscles changing the thickness of lens Retina-layer of photoreceptors at the back of the eye-converts light into nerve energy

106 Visual System Photoreceptors Rods-active in dim light, lack color
Cones-normal viewing-color Foveo-all cones- best viewing Bipolar cells-combine impulses from receptors send to ganglion cells Ganglion cells-integrates into a single fire rate Amacrine+horizontal cells-integrate info across retina

107

108 Visual Systems Primary visual cortex-region in occipital lobe in which visual info is processed Optic nerve-axons of ganglion cells that carry info from the eye to brain Optic tracts-deliver info to 2 clusters 2 sides of brain w/ same pattern on each side Color-spectrum (wave lengths) Hue-captures the qualitative experience Brightness-intensity Additive color-combining wavelengths Subtractive color Saturation-purity+vividness

109 Visual Systems -Colorblindness Sex linked Connected to X

110 Visual Systems Trichromatic Theory (Thomas Young+Hermann von Helmholte) 3 types of color receptors-blue, red, green

111 Visual Systems Opponent-process theory (Ewald Hering)
All color experiences come from 3 systems, red v green – blue v yellow - black (no color) v white (all colors)

112 Visual Systems Receptive field
Visual area from which a given ganglion cell receives info (selective)

113 Hearing Sine waves-1,100 / second 2 properties
Frequency-measured in hertz (HZ) # of cycles/time Amplitude-strength-peak/valley Pitch-highness or lowness of sound 20 HZ-20,000 HZ Piano 88 keys, 30 HZ – 4,000 HZ Loudness-physical intensity, determined by amplitude Large amplitude=loud Small=soft Decibel levels-measures loudness Timbre-complexity of sound waves Pure sound = 1 sound wave

114

115 Physiology 4 energy transformations
1)airborne sound waves to fluid waves 2)fluid waves to mechanical vibrations 3)vibrations to electrical impulses 4)impulses to auditory cortex

116 Physiology Sound travels
1)external ear-reflects of pinna through outer ear canal Hits eardrum (tympanic membrane) 2)Middle Ear-3 small bones Hammer, anvil + stirrup (vibrate) 3)inner ear Cochlea – primary organ of hearing (fluid filled) Basilar membrane – inside cochlea Transform fluid wave to nerve impulses w/ stimulus of hair cells Auditory nerve Carries nerve impulses from cochlea to brain Auditory cortex In temperal lobe Receives auditory nerve impulses

117 Place Theory (George von Bekesy)
Different frequency tones produce maximum activation at different locations along basilar membrane, w/ the result that pitch can be coded by the place that which activation occurs.

118 Frequency Theory Tones produce a rate of vibration in the basilar membrane equal to frequency, w/ the result that pitch can be coded by frequency of the neural response. Volley Principle When peaks in sound waves come too frequently for a single neuron to fire at each peak, several neurons fire a group at the frequency of the stimulus tone

119

120 Other Senses Smell – Olfactory cilia 80 molecules to stimulate
40 nerve endings to smell Olfactory bulb Center for smelling Located just below the frontal lobe of the cortex Pheromones Chemicals secreted to signal sexual receptivity, danger, territory + food.

121 Other Senses Taste-greatly influenced by smell Tongue
Papillae-bumpy surface Four primary nerve endings Tastes-sweet, sour, bitter, salty 5th umani MSG (Mono Sodium Glutamate) Regenerates frequently

122 Other Senses Touch Skin-cutaneous senses (skin’s senses)
Meissner corpuscles rubbing Merkel disks pressure Erogenous zones Skin that is especially sensitive Gives rise to erotic / sexual sensations

123 Touch cont. Vestibular / kinesthetic Helps head position w/ gravity
Inner ear/fluid+hairs Ex. Motion sickness (reading in car) Kinesthetic Constant sensory feedback about what the body is doing during motor activity.

124 Pain Body’s response to stimulation from noxious stimuli, threaten or cause tissue damage 2 types of pain Nociceptive – negative feeling ex. touch hot stove Neuropathic-over use, abnormal functioning ex (injury disease) Phantom Limb Phenomenon

125 Perception The set of processes that organize information in the sensory image and interpret that information as having been produced by objects or events in the external world Role is to make sense of sensations What is perceived The overall process of apprehending objects and events in the environment

126 Perception 3 stages Sensation-conversion of physical energy in to neural code Perceptual organization-internal perception of an object is formed and a percept of the external stimulus is developed. Working representation of the perceivers external environment ex(vision-seize, shape, movement, distance) Identification/recognition-assigns meaning to percepts (ex. Circles become coins, balls clocks etc.)

127 Stimuli Retinal image 2 dimensional Distal Proximal Ambiguity
Physical objects in the world Proximal Optical image on the retina Ambiguity Perceptual object that may have more than one interpretation Illusions Perceptual systems actually deceive you into experiencing a stimulus pattern in a manner that is a demonstratably incorrect

128 Abiguity

129 Abiguity

130 Abiguity

131 Illusion

132 Illusion

133 Illusion

134 Study of Perception Helmoltz (1866)-nurture Unconscious inferences
Using prior knowledge Unconscious inferences Perception that occurs outside of conscious awareness Analytic stage-break physical world down Synthetic stage-integrate and synthesize

135 Study of Perception Gestalt-Koffka(1935)/Kohler (1947)/ Wertheimer (1923) Viewed as organized, structured wholes Whole is more than the sum of its parts

136 Gestalt principals

137 Study of Perception Theory of Ecological options Gibson+Gibson ( ) Focused on the properties of external stimuli Perceiver as an explorer of the environment

138 Attentional Processes
Attention-state of focused awareness on a subset of the available perceptual information

139 Attentional Processes
Goal directed selection Choices you make about objects to which you’d like to attend

140 Attentional Processes
Stimulus-driven capture Features of stimulus-objects in the environment, capture your attention

141 Attentional Processes
Filter Theory (Broadbent 1958) Mind has limited capacity to take in info. + the selection occurs early on in the process before the input’s meaning is accessed Dichotic listening Different auditory stimulus is simultaneously presented in each ear

142 Attentional Processes
Preattentive Processes Processing of sensory information that precedes attention to specific objects Allows guided search

143 Organizational Processes
Divides stimuli into figures Figures-object like regions of the visual field that are distinguished from background Ground-backdrop or background areas of the visual field against which figures stick out

144 Organizational Processes
Illusory contours Contours perceived in a figure when no contours are present

145 Organizational Processes
Closure-makes you see incomplete figures as complete, balanced, symmetrical

146 Organizational Processes
Law of Proximity Law of grouping states the nearest or most proximal, elements are grouped together

147 Organizational Processes
Law of similarity Law of grouping states: similar elements are grouped together

148 Organizational Processes
Law of common fate Law of grouping states: elements moving in same direction at the same rate are grouped together

149 Integration Fixation-glance at something becomes fixed in mind
Spatial+temporal integration Fixed locations in different moments for seeing what is around you

150 Motion Changing of size Induced motion
An illusion in which a stationary point of light with in a moving reference frame is seen as moving +the reference frame is seen as stationary

151 Motion (Phi phenomenon)
Apparent motion-movement illusion in which one or more stationary lights going on and off in succession are perceived as a single moving light

152 Depth Perception Depth-distance from an object

153 Depth Perception Depth cues Binocular Binocular disparity 2 eyes
Retinal disparity-displacement between the horizontal positions of corresponding images in the two eyes Binocular disparity Taking 2 different retinal images, compares then for horizontal displacement of corresponding parts

154 Depth Perception Depth cues Convergence
Degree to which eyes turn inward to fixate on an object

155 Depth Perception Relative motion parallax
Depth, relative distances of object from a viewer determine the amount + direction of their relative motion in the retinal image

156 Depth Perception Pictorial cues Depth perception using one eye
Interposition or occlusion Blocking out an object (one is in front of another) Shadows ex. Person inside window Size/distance relation Closest projects largest size Railroad example

157 Ponzo Illusion

158 Depth Perception Perceptual constancy
The ability to retain an unchanged percept of an object despite various retinal images ex. Person moving round-close, back etc.

159 Depth Perception Size constancy
The ability to perceive the true size of an object despite variations in the size of the retinal image Prior knowledge

160

161 Depth Perception Shape constancy
Ability to perceive the true shape of an object despite variation of size of retinal image

162 Depth Perception Orientation constancy
Ability to perceive the actual orientation of objects in the real world despite their varying orientation in the retinal image Whit help from inner ear

163 Depth Perception Lightness constancy
The tendency to perceive the whiteness, grayness or blackness of objects as constant across changing levels of illumination

164 Bottom-up Less to more abstract

165 Top-Down Information passed down from experience Abstract to concrete

166 Content Consciousness
State of awareness of internal events and of the external environment Perceptions, feelings, thoughts, images, desires, etc.

167 Content Consciousness
Levels 1.basic-inner+outer world ex. hunger, cars 2. Reflection of what you are aware of 3. Top level-awareness of yourself as a conscious, reflective individual Self awareness Personal history, identity

168 Content Consciousness
Nonconscious processes Bodily activates that rarely, if ever, impinge on consciousness i.e.. Blood pressure, heart, eyes

169 Content Consciousness
Preconscious memories Memories accessible to conscious only after something calls your attention to them-your memory

170 Content Consciousness
Studying the unconscious Think aloud protocols Report made by experimental participants of their mental processes + strategies while working on task Experience-sampling model Participants are asked to record feelings+thinking whenever signaled

171 Functions of Consciousness
Survival (James) Making sense of environment Restrictive function-lessens stimulus Selective storage-categorizes Executive control-stop+remember back, use old experiences Culture plays role Consensus validation-culture+personal views come together

172 Functions of Consciousness
Conscious often affected by unconscious (SLIP) spoonerisms of Laboratory-Induced Predisposition I.e.. Color of snow, what do cows drink

173 Sleep/Dreams Circadian rhythms
Consistent pattern of cyclical body activities, usually lasting hours Internal biological clock 24.18-hour cycle Ex. Disruption-jet lag

174 Sleep/Dreams Sleep cycle Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Rapid eye movement (REM)-dreaming Non rapid eye movement (NREM)-less dreams

175 Sleep/Dreams Tracking sleep Going to bed 14 cycles per second (CPS)
Relaxing in bed 8-12 CPS Stage 1:3-7 CPS-sleep Stage 2:12-16 CPS-sleep spindles Mini bursts of electrical activity Stage 3&4:1-2 CPS-deep sleep Breathing/heart rate decrease REM sleep-dreams

176 Sleep/Dreams Stages 1-4 = about 90 min. REM sleep 10 min
100 min sleep cycle night Each cycle deep sleep decreases as REM sleep increases Last cycle up to 1 hr REM Sleep=about REM 75% NREM 25% Decrease in sleep w/ age

177 Sleep Issues Conservation
Saving energy for daily task ex. When dark no need to hunt

178 Sleep Issues Restoration Replenish neurotransmitters + neuromodulators

179 Sleep Issues REM sleep Might connect nerves+muscle pathways
Maintain mood and emotions Balance brain

180 Sleep Disorders Insomnia Dissatisfied w/ sleep
Cannot fall asleep, light sleep, wake up early Subjectivity of person

181 Sleep Disorders Narcolepsy Sleep during day time
Hit REM sleep instantly Genetic

182 Sleep Disorders Apnea Daytime Sleepiness
Stops breathing while sleeping Daytime Sleepiness Excessive sleepiness during daytime activity 30% of HS students sleep 1x/day

183 Freud Latent content-hidden meaning of a dream
Manifest content-surface content of a dream, might mask true meaning Dream work-process which dreamer turns latent content into manifest content Dream analysis-is to reverse process for dream work

184 Freud Dreams-unconscious wishes Idiosyncratic-individual dreams
Universal-dreams common to all

185 Non-Western Many cultures more into dream analysis, sharing, importance

186 Lucid Dreaming Ability to control one’s dreams Learned skill

187 Hypnosis Hypnos-Greek god of sleep Altered state of awareness
Deep relation, susceptibility to suggestion Changes in perception, memory motivation + self control

188 Hypnosis Hypnotizability Hypnotic analgesia Auto hypnosis
Degree to which the individual is responsive to standardized hypnotic suggestions Hypnotic analgesia Ability to reduce pain Auto hypnosis Self induced

189 Meditation Form of consciousness change designed to enhance self knowledge and well being by achieving a deep state of tranquility

190 Hallucinations Vivid perceptions that occur in the absence of objective stimulation

191 Religious Ecstasy Meditation, prayer, fasting, and spiritual communication

192 Drugs Psychoactive Affect mental processes and behavior by temporarily changing conscious awareness of reality Alter brain function

193 Drugs Tolerance Greater amount required to achieve same effect

194 Drugs Physiological dependence
Body becomes adjusted to and dependent on substance

195 Drugs Addiction Body must have, suffers pain/withdrawal

196 Drugs Psychological dependence Need or craving for drug

197 Learning Conditional The way in which events, stimuli and behavior become associated with one and other. Ex. Classical + operant

198 Learning Def-process that results in a relatively consistent change in behavior and is based on experience Ex. Improvement in performance, understanding, appreciation

199 Learning Learning performance distinction
The difference between what has been learned and what is expressed or performed in overt behavior

200 Behaviorism John Watson ( )-Psychology from the standpoint of a behaviorist Observable behavior Prediction and control of behavior Baby Albert

201 Watson

202 Behaviorism Skinner (1904-1990) Walden Two, Beyond Freedom + Dignity
Radical behaviorism Environmental stimuli caused behavior

203 Behaviorism Area of psychology that focuses on the environmental determinants of learning behavior

204 Classical Conditioning
Type of learning in which a behavior comes to be elicited by a stimulus that is acquired It’s power through an association w/ a biologically significant stimulus

205 Classical Conditioning
Founder Ivan Pavlov ( ) Dog experiment Reflex-unlearned response elicited by specific stimuli that have biological relevance for an organism

206 Classical Conditioning
How the experiment worked Unconditional stimulus (UCS) Stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response Ex. Dog food Unconditional response (CS) Response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus w/ out prior training Ex. Dog salivates

207 Classical Conditioning
Neutral stimulus Stimulus that has no previous meaning Ex. Bell or light Conditioned stimulus Previous neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a condition response Ex. Bell elicits salvation Conditioned Response A response elicited by some previous neutral stimulus that results from pairing the neutral stimulus w/ an unconditional stimulus

208 Classical Conditioning
Timing ( being contiguous) CS+UCS must be paired closely for conditioning to work

209 Classical Conditioning
Extinction The weakening of conditioned association in the absence of a reinforcer or unconditioned stimuli

210 Classical Conditioning
Spontaneous recovery After a rest period or time out, w/out further exposure to the UCS there is a sudden reappearance of the CR when CS is presented

211 Classical Conditioning
Stimulus generalization Automatic extension of responding to stimuli that have never been paired w/original UCS Stimulus discrimination Respond differently to stimuli that are distinct from the CS on some dimension

212 Acquisition Robert Resorta (1966- )
Proved need for condition procedure to be contiguous

213 Acquisition Leon Kamin (1969) CS must be informative Blocking
Organism doesn’t learn a new stimulus that signals an UCS because the new stimulus is presented simultaneously w/ a stimulus that is already effective as a signal

214 Acquisition Drug use and conditioning Place of use important
Shepard Siegel (1982)

215 Acquisition Pychoneuroimmunology
Investigates interactions between psychological processes, such as response to stress + the functions of the immune system

216 Operant Conditioning Edward Thorndike (1898) Puzzle boxes
Stimulus-response (S-R) connection Cat’s claw at button opens door in puzzle box (freedom) Law of effect Law of learning that states the power of a stimulus to evoke a response is strengthened when the response is followed by a reward+weakened when it is not followed by a reward

217 Operant Conditioning B.F Skinner Operant (affecting environment)
Behavior emitted by an organism that can be characterized in terms of the observable effects it has on the environment Reinforcement contingency Consistent relationship between a response and the changes in the environment that it produces

218 Operant Conditioning BF Skinner Operant conditioning
Learning in which the probability of a response is changed by its consequences

219 Skinner

220 Operant Conditioning Reinforcer Positive reinforcement
Stimulus that, when made contingent upon a response, increases the probability of that response Positive reinforcement Behavior is followed by the presentation of an appetitve stimulus, increasing the probability of that behavior

221 Operant Conditioning Negative reinforcement
Behavior is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus, increasing the probability of that behavior

222 Operant Conditioning Operant extinction Punisher
Behavior no longer produces predictable consequences, returns to pre conditioned level Punisher Any stimulus that, when made contingent upon a response, decreases the probability of that response

223 Operant Conditioning Positive punishment Negative punishment
Behavior is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus, decreasing probability of a behavior Ex. spanking Negative punishment A behavior is followed by the removal of an appetitive stimulus, decreasing the probability of that behavior Ex. grounding

224 Operant Conditioning Discriminative stimuli Ex. Red light, green light
Stimuli that acts as predictors of reinforcement, signaling when particular behaviors will result in positive reinforcement

225 Operant Conditioning Three-term contingency
The means by which organisms learn that, in the presence of some stimuli but not others, their behavior is likely to have a particular effect on the environment

226 Operant Conditioning Primary reinforces
Food, water-biological needs Conditioned enforcers (secondary) Like in classical, formerly neutral stimuli have become reinforces

227 Operant Conditioning Premack Principle (1965)
A more probable activity can be used to reinforce a less probable one. EX. Kyla clean room/watch video

228 Schedules of Reinforcement
Patterns of delivery and with holding reinforcement Partial reinforcement Response acquired under intermittent reinforcement are more difficult to extinguish than those acquired with continuous reinforcement

229 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed-ratio-reinforcer is delivered for the 1st response made after fixed number of responses Ex. Contract grading Variable-ratio-reinforcer is delivered for the 1st response made after variable number of responses whose average is predetermined Ex. Slot machine

230 Schedules of Reinforcement
Fixed interval-reinforcer is delivered for the 1st response made after fixed period of time ex. Pay check Variable interval- reinforcer is delivered for the 1st response made after a variable period f time whose average is predetermined. Ex. Pop quizzes

231 Schedules of Reinforcement
Shaping by successive approximations Reinforce any response that successively approximates and ultimately matches desired response

232 Biology + Learning Biological constraints Instinctual drift
limitations on learning imposed by species’ genetic endowment ex. Sensory, behavior, cognitive Instinctual drift The tendency for learned behavior to drift toward instinctual behavior ex. Raccoons, rubbing hands Pias rooting

233 Biology + Learning Taste-aversion learning John Garcia
Biological constraint on learning in which an organism learns in one trial to avoid food whose ingestion is followed by illness Up to 12 hrs., one trial, permanent

234 Cognitive Influences on Learning
Animal cognition The cognitive capabilities of a nonhuman animals Researchers trace the development of cognitive capabilities across species + the continuity of capabilities from nonhuman to human animals Clever Hans (horse)

235 Cognitive Influences on Learning
Cognitive map Mental representation of physical space Animals use spatial memory to recognize + identify features of the environment Animals use spatial memory to find important goal objectives in their environment Animals use spatial memory to plan their route through environment

236 Cognitive Influences on Learning
Observational learning Process of learning new response s by watching the behavior of another Acquire large pattern, less trial + error

237 Cognitive Influences on Learning
Observational learning Bandura Adults punch BoBo, children watching do the same

238 Bandura

239 Cognitive Influences on Learning
Observational learning Most influenced when: It is seen as having reinforcing consequences The models perceived positive liked and respected Perceived similarities between features traits and traits of the model and observer Observer is rewarded for paying attention to model Models’ behavior is visible and salient Is within observers range of competence

240 Memory The capacity to store and retrieve information Ebbinghaus 1885
German study on memory with nonsense syllables Ebbinhaus’s forgetting curve

241

242 Memory Implicit Explicit
Availability of info through memory processes with out the extension of any conscious effort to encode or recover information Explicit Continuous effort to recover information through memory processes

243 Memory Declarative Procedural
memory for information such as facts and events Procedural Memory for how things get done, the way perceptual, cognitive and motor skills are acquired, retained and used

244 Memory Encoding Storage Retrieval
The process by which a mental representation is formed in memory Storage Retention of encoded material overtime Retrieval The recovery of stored information from memory

245 Sensory Memory Each sensory memory preserves accurate representations of the physical features of sensory stimuli for a few seconds or less Ionic Memory Sensory memory in visual domain

246 Sensory Memory Echoic Memory
Sensory memory that allow auditory information to be stored for brief durations 5-10 seconds

247 Short Term Memory STM Memory process associated with preservation of recent experiences and with retrieval of information for long-term memory Limited capacity, 7 bits/chunks (Miller 1956)

248 Sensory Memory Stores for short amount of time with out rehearsal working memory Used to accomplish tasks such as reasoning and language comprehension Phonological loop-holds and manipulates speech based issues Visio spatial sketch pad-holds and manipulates visual spatial issues Central executive-controls attention and coordinates info from phonological loop and Visio-spatial sketch pad Working memory span 2.5 to 4 words

249

250 STM Strategies Maintenance rehearsal Chunking Retrieval form (STM)
Repeating in head Chunking Process of taking single items of information and recording them on the basis of similarity or some other organizing principle Retrieval form (STM) Very swift (Sternberg 1966)

251 Long Term Memory LTM Preservation of information for retrieval at any later time Encoding specificity Subsequent retrieval of info is enhanced if cues received at the time of recall are consistent with those present at the time of encoding ex. Doing homework

252 Long Term Memory LTM Serial position effect
Memory retrieval in which the recall of beginning and end items on a list is often better than recall of items appearing in the middle Primary effect-start of list Regency effect-end of list

253 Long Term Memory LTM Contextual distinctiveness
Serial position effects can be altered by the context and the distinctiveness of the experience being recalled

254 Long Term Memory LTM Recall Recognition
Method of retrieval in which an individual is required to reproduce the into previously presented Recognition Method of retrieval in which an individual is required to identify stimulus as having been experienced before

255 Long Term Memory LTM Retrieval cues
Internally or externally generated stimuli available to help with retrieval of a memory

256 Long Term Memory LTM Endel Tulving (1972) Episodic Memory
LT memories from autobiographical events and the context in which they occurred Semantic Memories generic categorical memories, such as the meaning of words and concepts

257 Long Term Memory LTM Interference
A memory phenomenon that occurs when retrieval cues do not point effectively to one specific memory Proactive-forward acting Retroactive-backward acting

258 Long Term Memory LTM Levels-of-Processing Theory
Deeper the level at which information was processed, the more likely it is to be retained

259 Long Term Memory LTM Transfer-appropriate processing Priming
Memory is best when the type of processing carried out at encoding matches the process carried out at retrieval Priming In assessment of implicit memory the advantage conferred by prior exposure to a word or situation

260 Improving Memory Elaborative rehearsal Mnemonics Metamemory
While memorizing you enrich the material Mnemonics Use familiar information during encoding of new information to enhance subsequent access to the info in memory Metamemory Implicit or explicit knowledge about memory abilities and effective memory strategies; cognition about memory

261 Improving Memory Cue familiarity hypothesis Feelings of knowing
People base their feelings of knowing on their familiarity of retrieval cues Feelings of knowing Subjective sensations that you do have info stored in memory that is accurate

262 Improving Memory Accessibility hypothesis Concepts Prototype
People base their judgment on the accessibility or availability of partial info from memory Concepts Mental representations of kinds or categories of items or ideas Prototype The most representative example of a category

263 Improving Memory Basic level Schemes
Level of categorization that can be retrieved from memory most quickly and used most efficiently Schemes General conceptual frameworks or clusters of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and situations Knowledge packages that encode generalizations about structure of the environment

264 Improving Memory Reconstructive memory Eyewitness memory
Putting information together based on general types of stored knowledge in the absence of a specific memory representation Bartlett (1932) Leveling – simplifying Sharpening- highlighting overemphasizing Assimilating- changing details to better fit the tellers background Eyewitness memory Elizabeth Loft (1979, 1992) Distorted by post event info

265 Biological Aspects of Memory
Engram The physical memory trace for information in the brain Karl Lashlery (1929, 1950) Widely distributed

266 Biological Aspects of Memory
4 majors brain structures in memory 1. Cerebellum Procedural memory Memories acquired by repetition Classical conditioning 2. Striation Habit formation Stimulus response connections Cerebral cortex Sensory memories Amygdala + hippocampus Declarative memory of facts, dates, names, emotions

267 Biological Aspects of Memory
Amnesia Failure of memory over a long period of time Brain Imaging Positron-emission tomography (PET) Functioning magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)

268 Cognitive Process Higher mental process, such as perception memory, language, problem solving and abstract thinking Cognition Process of knowing Attending, remembering and reasoning Content of the process, such as concepts and memories

269 Cognitive Process Cognitive psychology
Study of higher mental processes Including attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving and thinking

270 Cognitive Process Cognitive science
Interdisciplinary field study of the approach systems and processes that manipulate info

271 Studying Cognition FC Donders (1868)
Extra mental steps will often result in more time to perform a task Serial process- two or more mental processes that are carried out in order, one after the other

272 Studying Cognition Parallel process
Two or more mental processes that are carried out simultaneously Doing two things at once

273 Studying Cognition Controlled processes Automatic processes
Require attention Difficult to do two at one time Automatic processes Does not require attention Can be performed along with other task with out interferences

274 Language Use Language production Audience design
What people say sign and write as well as the process they go through to produce the messages Audience design Process of shaping a message depending on the audience for which it is intended

275 Language Use Cooperative principle Common ground Paul Grice (1975)
Speak utterances appropriate to setting and meaning of ongoing conversation Common ground Herbbert Clark (1981) Common knowledge Community membership – in community Linguistic copresence-earlier talk Physical copresence-objects around

276 Language Use Spoonerism Error in language
An exchange of the initial sounds of two or more words in a phrase or sentence Ex. Messing up a tongue twister

277 Language Use Lexical Lexical ambiguity
Lexicon or synonym for dictionary Lexical ambiguity Two meanings of word or sentence I.e. ball – play with – go to

278 Language Use Understanding Propositions (begins with) on, under etc.
Inferences Missing in or filled in on the basis of a sample of evidence or on the basis of prior beliefs and theories

279 Language Use Language / Culture Whorf, Sapir (1976)
Language habits of community influence meaning of language Linguistic relativity-differences in language structures will lead to cognitive differences

280 Language Use Linguistic determinism
Structure of language influences or determines the way native speakers perceive and reason about the world

281 Visual Cognition Studies show we use visual imagery due to time/length of answers to questions Problems solving Thinking that is directed toward solving specific problems and that move from an initial state to a goal by means of a set of mental operations

282 Problem Solving Reasoning Problem space
The process of thinking in which conclusions are drawn from a set of facts Thinking directed toward a given goal or objective Problem space Thinking that is directed toward solving specific problems and that move from an initial state to a goal by means of a set of mental operations

283 Problem Solving Algorithm Heuristics
Step-by-step procedure that always provides the right answer for a particular type of problem Heuristics Strategies, often used shortcuts “rules of thumb”

284 Problem Solving Think-aloud protocols Functional fixedness
Verbal reports bye people solving mental processes Functional fixedness Inability to perceive a new use for an object previously associated with some other purpose Adversely effects problems solving and creativity

285 Problem Solving Deductive Reasoning Belief-bias effect
Form of thinking in which one draws a conclusion that is intended to follow logically two or more statement or premises Belief-bias effect Person’s prior knowledge, attitudes or valves distort the reasoning process by influencing the person to accept invalid arguments Believable conclusion

286 Problem Solving Inductive reasoning Mental set
A conclusion is made about the probability of some state of affairs based on the available evidence and past experience Mental set Tendency to response to a new problem in the manner used to response to a previous problem

287 Judging and Deciding Hubert Simon
Founding figure is cognitive Psychology Human thinking powers are modes vs. the complexities of the environment Judgment Process by which people form decision reaching conclusions, and make critical evaluations of events and people based on available materials Product of that mental activity Decision making Process of choosing between alternatives Selecting or rejecting available options

288 Judging and Deciding Heuristics and Judgment
Amos Tversky and Danile Kahneman (1990’s) Availability heuristics Judgment based on the information readily available in memory Moods affect available memory recall Biased in memory recall

289 Judging and Deciding Representative heuristics Anchoring heuristics
Assigns an object to a category on the basis of a few characteristics regarded as representative of that category Anchoring heuristics Insufficient adjustment up or down from an original starting valve when judging the probable valve of some event or outcome Ex.salesman price $1-2k sell to you $500

290 Visual Cognition Frame Particular description of a choice
Perceptive from which a choice is described or framed affects how a decision is made and which options is ultimately exercised ex. $1000 raise is good unless you thought you were getting $10k raise

291 Visual Cognition Decision aversion Tendency to avoid decision making
The tougher the decision, the greater the likelihood of decision aversion

292 Psychological Assessment
Use of specified procedures to evaluate the abilities, behaviors and personal qualities of people Measure individual differences

293 History of assessment China 4000 years ago
Sir Francis Galton (1869) Intelligence Quantify intelligence ( measure ) Intelligence- bell shaped curve, normal distribution Could measure by test

294 Formal Assessment Systematic procedure and measurement instruments used by trained professionals to assess an individual’s functioning, aptitudes, abilities, or mental states. Reliability Degree to which test produces similar scores each time Stability or consistency of the scores produced by an instrument

295 Formal Assessment Test-retest reliability
Measure of correlation between the scores of the same people of the same test given on two different occasions. Perfectly reliable to +1.00 Correlations coefficient totally unreliable scores 0.00

296 Formal Assessment Parallel forms
Different versions of a test used to assess reliability The change of forms reduces affects of direct practice, memory or desire of an individual to stay consistent over time.

297 Formal Assessment Internal consistency Split-half reliability
The degree to which a test yields similar scores across its different parts Odds vs. evens Split-half reliability Measure of correlation between test taker’s performance on a different halves of test

298 Validity Extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure. Face validity Degree to which test items appear to be directly related to the attribute the researcher wishes to measure-simple, straightforward

299 Criterion Validity Degree to which test scores indicate a result on a specific measure that is consistent with some other criterion of charities being assessed ex. High SAT=success in college Predictive validity

300 Norms Standards based on measurements of a large group of people
Used for comparing the scores of an individual with those others with in a well defined group Ex. IQ norm=100

301 Standardization Set of uniform procedures for treating each participant in a test, interview, or experiment, or for recording data.

302 Intelligence The global capacity to profit from experience and to go beyond given information about the environment

303 Intelligence Alfred Binet (1905)
1st intelligence test Measured mental age Age at which a child is performing intellectually, expressed in terms of the average age at which normal children achieve a particular score Chronological age number of years/months since someone is born

304 Alfred Binet Four features to Binet’s approach
Estimate of current intelligence Test children to see if they need help Test to help find weak areas for additional help/training Constructed test empirically

305 IQ tests Intelligence quotient 1) Stanford Lewis-Binet
Terman (1916) Standardized Binet’s test for grammar school kids IQ=mental age divided by chronological age times 100 Updated frequently Norm 70 retarded 130 superior 2) Wechsler-Bellevue Intelligence Scale (1939) David Wechsler Combined non-verbal

306 Theories of Intelligence Psychometrics
Field of psychology that specializes in mental testing Factor analysis Statistical procedure that detects a small number of dimensions clusters or factors with in a larger set of independent variables

307 Psychometrics G S Charles Spearman (1927)
The factor of general intelligence underlying all intelligent performance S Individual domain

308 Psychometrics Rayman Cattell (1963) Fluid intelligence
Ability to see complex relationships and solve problems Crystallized Intelligence Knowledge a person has already acquired and the ability to access that knowledge Vocabulary, arithmetic, general info

309 Psychometrics JP Gulliford 1961 Structure of intellect
Content-type of information Product-form information is represented Operation-type of mental activity performed

310 Psychometrics Robert Sternberg (1988) Componential Intelligence
Mental processes that underlie thinking and problem solving Knowledge acquisition Learning new facts Performance components Problem-solving strategies Metacognative components Selecting strategies and monitoring progress Experimental intelligence People’s ability to deal with novel and extreme problems Contextual intelligences Managing day to day affairs Adapt, select, shape Street smarts/ business sense

311 Howard Gardner (1983) Multiple Intelligences eight total

312 Emotional Intelligence
EQ-Emotional Quotient The ability to perceive, appraise and express emotions accurately and appropriately, use emotion to help thinking Ability to analyze emotions regulates emotions to promote emotional growth

313 Minority Groups IQ’s- are lower in minorities with test available
Ex. Juke and Kallikak families Today Latino and African Americans score lower

314 Heredibility estimate
Statistical estimate of the degree of inheritance of a given trait or behavior, assessed by the degree of similarity between individuals who vary in their extent of genetic similarity Older the higher the correlation Identical twins highest

315 Environment Socioeconomic status Parents education-mother specifically
Economics, health, educational resources

316 Validity of IQ test Good predictor of school, college and job success
Cultures Role Stereotype threat Threat associated with being at risk for confirming a negative stereotype of one’s group Context not content of test is 00000an issue

317 Creativity Ability to generate ideas or products that are both novel and appropriate to the circumstances. Divergent thinking An ability to produce unusual but appropriate responses to problems Up to IQ 120 ability increases, decreases after that Mental illness in creativity i.e. Mania Motivation an issue Intrinsic key

318 Assessment and Society
Cautions Error free assessment Ethical-shaping education Labeling students

319 Developmental Psychology
Psychology concerned with changes in physical and psychological functioning that occur from conception across the entire lifespan Psychologist How and why organisms change Document and explain

320 Stages Prenatal-conceptions to birth Infancy-birth to 18 months
Early childhood-18 months to 6 yrs Late childhood-6 yrs to 13 yrs Adolescence-13 yrs to yrs Early Adult-20 yrs to 30 yrs Middle Adult-30 yrs to 65 yrs Late adult-65 yrs +

321 Development Passive, slow process

322 Normative Investigation
Research efforts designed to describe what is characteristic of a specific age or developmental stage finding landmarks

323 Chronological Age Months/yrs since birth

324 Developmental Age Chronological age at which most children show a particular level of physical or mental development

325 Longitudinal design/study
Same individuals repeatedly observed and tested over time, often for many years

326 Cross-sectional design
Groups of participants of different chronological ages are observed and compared at a given time

327 Nature-nurture Controversy
Genetics vs. social Heredity vs. social John Locke Empiricism Blank slate, all learned Jean Jacques Rousseau Nativist Nature or evolution Jean marc Itard Raised wild boy (12 year old) 1st 5 yrs trained then stopped working

328 Physical Development Bodily changes, maturation, and growth that occur in a organism starting with conception and continuing across the life span Zygote Single cell Sperm/egg

329 Prenatal period 3 wks-heartbeat 1/6 in long
8 wks called fetus-movement 16 wks mom can feel 7 in long Brain growth 250,000 neurons/min Drugs/alcohol abuse

330 Birth Can hear Vision but improves 3 dimensional, color
Elenor Gibson and Richard Walk (1960) Visual cliff

331 Physical Head 60% grown @ birth Weight doubles 6 months
Weight triples 1 year Age 2 trunk is 50% of adult size

332 Maturation Continuing influence of heredity throughout development
Age-related physical and behavioral changes characteristic of a species Roll over 3 moths Sit up 5 moths Crawl 10 months Walk 12 months

333 Puberty Attainment of sexual maturity Girls menarche
Boys production of live sperm and ability to ejaculate Body image Subjective view of appearance of one’s body Issues-anorexia/bulimia

334 Adulthood Gradual changes into and through adult hood
Vision and hearing decline Reproductive and sexual functioning Menopause age 50, women Viable sperms drops age 40, fluid drops age 60 Does not drop after 40 if health and relationship

335 Cognitive Development
Process of knowing, imagining, perceiving reasoning, and problems solving

336 Jean Piaget (1929-1977) Schemes Assimilation Accommodation
Mental structures that enable individuals to interpret the world Assimilation Modify new environmental information to fit into what is already Accommodation Restructuring or modifying cognitive structures so that new information can fit into them more easily

337 Stages of Cognitive Development
(0-2) sensory motor Child uses body and senses Object permanence (3 moths-8 months) Objects exist independent of individuals’ action or awareness Representational thought Renee Baillargeon (1991) Possible object permanence earlier 3 than months

338 Object Permanence

339 Stages of Cognitive Development
(2-7) Preoperational Child begins to use mental images or symbols to understand things Egocentrism Cannot take perspective of another person Centrism Early- Child’s inability to take more than one perceptual factor into the same time Conservation Physical properties don’t change when nothing is added or taken away

340 Conservation

341 Stages of Cognitive Development
Concrete operational stage (7-11) Able to use logical schemes but limited to concrete objects

342 Stages of Cognitive Development
Formal operational (11+) Able to solve abstract problems

343 Foundational theories
Frameworks for initial understanding formulated by children to explain their experiences of the world All ages

344 Social and cultural influences on cognitive dev.
Internalization process through which children absorb knowledge from social context Lev Vygotsky Formal operations cultural

345 Cognitive Dev. In Adults
No evidence of intellectual decline in elderly Crystallized vs. fluid intelligence Verbal schooling vs. learn quickly and thoroughly Fluid declines with age John Horn

346 Wisdom Expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life

347 Use it or lose it Important with age Warner Schaie 1994

348 Selective optimization with compensation
Strategy for successful aging in which one makes the most of gains while minimizing the impact of losses that accompany normal aging Paul Bates and Margaret Baltes (1998)

349 Alzheimer’s Disease A chronic organic brain syndrome characterized by gradual loss of memory, decline in intellectual ability and deterioration of personality Over 65-10% Over 85-50%

350 Language Born with innate capacity

351 Structures Until 8 months no distinction between phonemes due to language ex. (L) ( R) in Japanese Child-directed speech Special form of speech with an exaggerated and high-pitched infonation that adults use to speak to infants and young children Learn names by 5 months

352 Word meaning 18 months (word explosion) Age 6 14,000 words
9 words/ day Overextension ex. Milk means all drinks Mutually exclusive Each object has only one label ex. Fire engine/truck/vehicle

353 Grammar Norm Chomsky (1976)
Born with mental structures that facilitate comprehension and production of language ex. Deaf people learn grammar

354 Grammar Language-making capacity
Innate guidelines or operating principles that children bring to the task of learning a language Dan Slobin (1985) Keep track of order and meaning expressed in language Telegraphic speech Leaves out verbs, gets point across For adult to understand must understand context Example for language making capacity Overregularization Grammar error, rules of language are applied too widely Ex. By adding/ed/ makes past tense add “ed” to do and break or add /s/ to foot

355 Social Development Ways individuals’ social interactions and expectations change across the lifespan. Culture and environment play large role Psychosocial stages Erik Erikson Successive developmental stages that focus on an individual’s orientation toward self and others Incorporate both the sexual and social aspects of a person’s development and the social conflicts that arise from the interactions between the individual and the social environment

356 Socialization Lifelong process whereby an individual’s behavior patterns, values, standards, attitudes, and motives are shaped to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society Involves friends, relatives, teachers, etc. who exert pressure on individual

357 Attachment Emotional relationship between a child and the regular caregiver Early survival Imprinting Conrad Lorenz (geese) Primitive form of learning in which some infant animals physically follow and form an attachment to the first moving object they see or hear

358 Attachment Proximity-prompting signals
Baby smiling, crying and vocalizing to signal need for care John Bowl (1973)

359 Attachment Strange situation test Mary Ainsworth (1978) Age 1-2
Securely attached child Some distress when parent leaves room, seeks comfort when parent returns - returns to play Insecurely attached-avoidant Aloof may avoid parent upon return Insecurely attached-ambivalent resistant Becomes upset anxious when parent leaves, upon parent return hard to sooth, shows anger towards parent Can predict later behavior

360 Parenting Styles Manner in which parents rear their children
Authoritative seen as best Authoritarian type Parents apply discipline with little attention to child's autonomy Indulgent type Parents helpful but fail to teach rules about structure or society Neglecting or permissive type No discipline, non responsive to child’s individuality

361 Parenting Practices Behaviors that arise in response to particular parent goals

362 Contact Comfort Harry Harlow (1965)
Did not believe in going cupboard theory-attachment due to feeling Comfort derived from an infant’s physical contact with the mother of caregiver Reuses Monkeys Experiment Choose contact comfort over food Other studies show orphaned infants with proper food/water etc. die due to lack of contact

363 Harlow

364 Social Development in Adolescence
Time of “storm and stress”-myth Margaret Mead(1928) and Ruth Benedict(1938) Argue this to be mainly in Western Culture

365 Social Development in Adults
Intimacy and generativity Erikson Lieben and Arbeiten or love and work-Freud Love and Belonging- Maslow Women's health effected by how good marriage is

366 Social Development in Adults
Selective social interaction theory As people age, they become more selective in choosing social partners who satisfy their social needs Laura Carstensen (1998) Helps conserve energy, protects Ageism Prejudice against older people Decremental aging By number not ability

367 Gender Development Sex differences
Biologically based characteristics that distinguish males and females Hormones and anatomy

368 Gender Psychological phenomenon that refers to learned sex related behaviors and attitude of males and females

369 Gender Identity One’s sense of maleness or femaleness
Awareness and acceptance of one's biological sex

370 Gender Roles Set of behaviors and attitudes associated by society with being male or female and expressed publicly by the individual Acquisition Parents play role Eleanor Maccoby Children seek out same sex to play with

371 Moral Development Morality
System of beliefs and values that ensures that individuals will keep their obligations to others in society and will behave in ways that do not interfere with the rights and interests of others

372 Lawrence Kohlberg (1965, 1981) Moral reasoning
Ties into Piagets cognitive abilities 4 principles of Kohlberg’s stage model 1. At any given time you can only be at one level 2. Everyone goes through stages in fixed order 3. Each stage gets more complex and comprehensive 4. Same stages occur across culture

373 Critique to Kohlberg Only boys studied-Carol Gilligan (1982)
Level of differences between the sexes I.e. caring nature of female Cultural differences

374 Motivation Process of starting, directing and maintaining physical and psychological activities Mechanisms involved in preferences for one activity over another and the vigor and persistence of responses Latin movere- “to move”

375 Motivational Concepts
Relate biology to behavior Account for behavioral variability Infer private states from public acts Intrinsic or external Assign responsibility for action Explain perseverance despite adversity

376 Sources of Motivation Drives
Internal states that arise in response to disequalibrium in an animal's physiological needs Clark Hull (1952) Need for homeostasis Constancy or equilibrium of the internal conditions of the body Respond to tensions in body

377 Sources of Motivation Incentives
External stimuli or rewards that motivate behavior although they do not relate directly to biological needs

378 Sources of Motivation Reversal theory
Explains human motivation in terms of reversals from one to the other opposing metamotivational states Michael Apter (1989) Rejects tension idea

379 Sources of Motivation Instincts
Preprogrammed tendencies that are essential to a species' survival Ex. Salmon William James (1890) Social-sympathy, modesty love Sigmund Freud (1915) Life instincts (sex drive)

380 Sources of Motivation Expectations+Cognitive
What you do now is motivated by past experience Social learning theory Role of observation and the imitation of behaviors observed in others Fritz Heider (1958) Dispositional forces-lack of effort, intelligence Situational forces-unfair situation

381 Eating Direct internal food need Initiate + organize eating behavior
Monitor the quantity + quality of food Detect when enough food has been consumed + stop eating

382 Peripheral responses Ie. Stomach Walter Cannon (1934)
Empty stomach caused hunger Swallowed a balloon People w/ removed stomachs still were hungry Foods high in proteins+calories are more satisfying than low-cal+low protein

383 Central responses Lateral hypothalamus (LH)
Hunger center Ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) Satiety center After some time not totally true, type of food makes diff.

384 Psychology of eating Janet Polovy + Peter Herman (1975)
Restrained eaters Put limits on how much food Unrestrained eaters No limit Anxiety affects retrained eaters more

385 Eating Disorders Individual weights less than 85% of their expected weight but still controls eating because of self-perception of obesity

386 Bulimia nervosa Binge eating followed by measures to purge body of excess calories Vomiting, fasting, laxatives, exercise

387 Sexual Behaviors Reproduction
Hormones-selected by gonads Males-androgens Present all the time Females-estrogen Present according to cycles Pheromones Chemical signals to attract suitors

388 Sexual Arousal Male-testosterone Female-based on cycle
The motivational state of excitement + tension brought about by physiological+cognitive reaction to erotic stimuli

389 William Masters+Virginia Johnson (1979)
Studied in lab thousands of volunteers about sex Conclusions Men + women have similar patterns of sexual response Sex response cycles similar but women response slower+remained aroused longer Women multiple organism men usually do not penis size not important in sexual performance

390 William Masters+Virginia Johnson (1979)
Human sexual response cycle Excitement, plateau, organism, resolution

391 William Masters+Virginia Johnson (1979)
Excitement Few minutes up to more than an hour Blood vessels in pubic region Orgasm Very intense pleasure Contraction on every .8 of a second Male-ejaculation

392 William Masters+Virginia Johnson (1979)
Plateau Level of arousal reached Muscle tension, rapid heart beat Resolution Body gradually returns to normal

393 Sexual Norm Alfred Kinsey 1940’s
Interviewed 17,000 Americans about sexual behaviors Norms change over time Sexual scripts Socially learned programs of sexual responsiveness (culture) What to do? W/ whom? Why? Ex. Date Rate

394 Homosexuality 4-6% say they are attracted to same sex 2% act on it
Genetic link (w/ twin studies) Daryl Bem (2000) Sex play Childhood experiences

395 Homosexuality Homophobia
Negative attitude towards gay people 1973 removed homosexuality from list of disorders Disorders were caused by society

396 Personal Achievement Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
David McCelland (1953) Projective test in which pictures of ambiguous scenes are presented to an individual, who is encouraged to generate stories about them

397 Need for Achievement (nAch)
Assumed basic human need to strive for achievement of goals that motivates a wide range of behaviors + thinking Higher nAch make more $

398 Attributions of success + failure
Locus of control Intrinsic vs. extrinsic Global vs. specific Attribution Judgment about the causes of outcomes

399 Attributions of success + failure
Optimistic external Pessimistic internal

400 Organizational Psychology
Psychologists who study various aspects of the human work environment Communication, leadership, job satisfaction stress, burnout Equity theory Workers are motivated to maintain fair+equitable relationships w/ other relevant persons outcome= to input

401 Organizational Psychology
Expectancy Theory- do desired work Cognitive theory of work motivation that proposes that workers are motivated when they expect their efforts+job performance to result in desired outcomes

402 Organizational Psychology
3 compounds of expectancy theory Perceived likelihood that a worker’s efforts will result in a certain level of performance Instrumentality refers to the perception that performance will lead to certain outcomes/rewards Valence refers to the perceived attractiveness of particular outcomes

403 Hierarchy of Needs Maslow’s view of basic human motives
Lower needs to be met to move up Biological, safety, attachment, esteem, cognitive esthetic, self actualization

404 Emotions Complex patterns of changes, including physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive process, and behavioral reactions, made in response to a situation perceived to be personally significant

405 Darwin (1872) Adaptive functions of emotions
Inherited, specialized mental states designed to deal with a certain class of recurring situations

406 Silvan Tomkins (1981) Universal emotions Babies scared by loud noises
Cross culture

407 Paul Eleman (1984) People share an overlap in “facial expressions” cross culturally

408 Cultural Constraints Emotions vary due to culture Individualistic
Needs of individuals-personal rewards, freedoms, equity Collectivist Need of group Self-discipline, honoring parents/elders

409 Theories Physiology Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
Heart rate, respiration increases, muscle tense, shake, dry mouth Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Sympathetic-pleasant, releases hormones Parasympthetic-mildly unpleasant

410 Theories Central Nervous System Hypothalamus and limbic systems
Emotions for attack, defense and flight Amygdala (one on each side of brain) Part of limbic system that controls emotion aggression and the formation of emotional memory Cortex Connects emotions and external body Association, memories and meaning into physical responses

411 James-Lange Theory of Emotion (1890, 1950)
Peripheralist theory Peripheral-feedback theory of emotion stating that an eliciting stimulus triggers a behavior response that sends different sensory and motor feedback to the brain and creates the feeling of a specific emotion.

412 Cannon-Bard theory (1929) An emotional stimulus produces two co-occurring reactions-arousal and experience of emotion that do not cause each other

413 Cognitive Appraisal Stanley Schachter 1971
The process through which physiological arousal is interpreted with respect to circumstances in the particular setting in which it is being experienced Recognition and evaluation of a stress or to assess the demand, the size of threat, the resources available for dealing with it, and appropriate coping strategies

414 Cognitive Appraisal Theory of Emotion
Richard Lazarus (1984) Experience of emotion is the joint effect of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal, which serves to determine how an ambiguous inner state of arousal will be labeled Lacked conscious thought

415 Function of Emotion Direct and sustain your behavior toward a goal
Inverted U Relationship between arousal and performance

416 Function of Emotion Yerkes-Dodson Law
Correlation between task performance and optimal level of arousal Simple task: less arousal-more difficult task greater arousal

417 Function of Emotion Social functioning Cognitive functioning
Mood congruent processing Mood state Positive moods yield creativity/problem solving Negative moods yield opposite

418 Stress Pattern of specific and nonspecific responses an organism makes to stimulus events that disturb its equilibrium and tax or exceed its ability to cope

419 Stressor Internal or external event or stimulus that induces stress

420 Chronic Continuous state of arousal in which an individual perceives demands as greater than the inner and outer resources available for dealing with them.

421 Acute Transient state of arousal with typically clear onset and offset patterns

422 Acute Walter Cannon (1920) Fight or Flight
Internal activates triggered when an organism is faced with a threat Prepares the body for combat and struggle or for running to safety More of a male trait

423 Shelly Tyler (2000) Tend-and-befriend response Typically female
Stressors prompt females to protect their offspring and join social groups to reduce vulnerability

424 Shelly Tyler (2000) Hypothalamus Adrenal Medulla (hormones)
Stress center Controls ANS and pituitary gland Adrenal Medulla (hormones) Epinephrine and neuroepinephrine Start body functions Pituitary Gland Thyrotroph (hormone) Adrenocorticotrohpic (hormone)

425 Hans Selye (1976) General adoption syndrome (GAS)
Pattern of nonspecific adaptional physiological mechanism that occur in response to continuing threat by almost any serious stressor Psychosomatic disorders Psychical disorders activated or caused by prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes

426 Psychological stress Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)(1960)
Scale to rate the degree of adjustment and required by various life changes-both pleasant and unpleasant Life change units (LCU’s) Measure of stress levels of different types of change experienced during a given period

427 Psychological stress Procrastinators have more stress symptoms than do nonprocrastinators Catastrophic events Emergency phase-1st 3 weeks Anxiety, obsessive thoughts Inhibition phase-3-8 weeks Sudden decline in thought/talk Adaption phase 9+ weeks Psychological effect over

428 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Anxiety disorder Persistent reexperience of traumatic events through dreams, hallucinations or flashbacks

429 Residual Stress Pattern
Chronic syndrome in which the emotional responses of PTSD stress persist over time

430 Hassles More hassles lead to greater health problems

431 Coping Process of dealing with internal or external demands that are perceived to be threatening or overwhelming

432 Richard Lazarus Primary appraisal Secondary appraisal
Initial evaluation of the seriousness of a demand Secondary appraisal Evaluate the personal and social resources that are available

433 Stress Moderator variables
Variables that change the impact of a stressor on a given type of stress reaction

434 Anticipatory coping-Folkman (1984)
Efforts made in advance of a potentially stressful event to overcome, reduce, or tolerate the imbalance between perceived demands and available resources Problem directed coping Confront problem directly Problem solving directly Emotion focused coping Lessen the discomfort

435 Modifying cognitive strategies
Reap praise Restructure

436 Donald Meichenbaum (1977-93)
Stress inoculation People work to develop a greater awareness of their actual behavior People begin to identify new behaviors People appraise consequences new behaviors

437 Perceived control The belief that one has the ability to make a difference in the course or consequences of some event or experience

438 Social support Resources, including material aid, socioemotional support provided to help w/ stress Love, money, advice, housing, etc.

439 Health Psychology Understanding the ways people stay healthy, the reasons they become ill, and the ways they respond when the become ill.

440 Health General condition of soundness and vigor of body and mind
Not simply the absence of illness or injury

441 Hozho Navajo concept Refers to harmony, peace of mind, goodness, ideal family relationships, beauty in arts and crafts, and health of body and spirit Illness is seen as disharmony

442 Biomedical Model Dualistic body and mind Mind body separation
Interactions made model unworkable

443 Biopsychosocial model
Model of health and illness that suggests that links among the nervous system, the immune system, behavioral systems cognitive processing and environmental factors can put people at risk for sickness

444 Biopsychosocial model
3 components Bio, psycho, social Links mind, body and world around you

445 Wellness Optimal health
Incorporating the ability to function fully and actively over the physical, intellectual, emotional, spiritual, social and environmental domains of health

446 Health Promotion Development and implementation of general strategies and specific tactics to eliminate or reduce the risk that people will become ill

447 AIDS Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Virus that damages the immune system and weakens the body's ability to fight infection

448 HIV Human immunodefiency virus
Virus that attacks white blood cells (T cells) in human blood Causes AIDS Transmitting Semen/blood sexual contact IV drug use Not airborne

449 Fighting AIDS Information/education Motivation Behavioral skills

450 Treatment Too little focus on in our society
Need clear communication from health care professions Using mind to heal

451 Relaxation Response Condition in which muscle tension, cortical activity, heart rate, and blood pressure decrease and breathing slows Needs Quiet environment Closed eyes Comfortable position Repetitive mental device i.e. chant

452 Biofeedback Self-regulatory technique by which an individual acquires voluntary control over nonconscious biological process i.e. blood pressure Neal Miller (1978) Can change skin temp.

453 Breast Cancer study 18.9 months with medical treatment
36.6 months with medical treatment and therapy

454 Secrets James Pennebaker (1990) Confessing leads to better health
Arthritis study

455 Job Burnout Emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishments, often brought on by job related stress

456 Nine Steps for healthy foundation
Never say bad things about yourself Compare your reactions, thought and feelings with those close to you Have several close friends to share with

457 Nine Steps for healthy foundation
Balance time Future-work to be done Present-goal is achieved Pleasure at hand Past-in touch with roots

458 Nine Steps for healthy foundation
Take full credit for happiness and success When losing control of emotions take step back/away Failure and disappointment can be blessing in disguise If you cannot help yourself or others get professional help Cultivate happy pleasures

459 Personality Types A-excessive emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience, and hostility-increase heart disease risk B-less competitive, less aggressive, less hostile-more mellow C-passive acceptance and self sacrifice-puts too much onto self Larger cancer risk

460 Personality Phrenology
Study of skull shape/bumps

461 Goal Categorize people Predictions about people
Specify differences among people

462 Personality Defined Unique psychological qualities of an individual that influences a variety of characteristic behavior pattern across different situations over time

463 Personality Types Distinct patterns of personality characteristics used to assign people to categories Qualitative differences rather than differences in degree, used to discriminate among people

464 Hippocrates (5 BC) 1st to introduced personality types
Types: Blood, Phlegm, Black Bile, Yellow Bile

465 William Sheldon (1942) Physique to temperament
Endomorphic (fat, soft, round) Relaxed sociable Mesomorphic (muscular, strong, rectangular) Energy, courage, assertive Ectomorphic (thin, long, fragile) Brainy, artistic, introverted

466 Frank Sulloway (1996) Birth order 1st or only-niche already made
2nd born-need to create niche

467 Traits Enduring personal qualities or attributes that influence behavior across situations

468 Gordon Alport (1937-1966) Cardinal traits Central traits
What person organizes their life around Central traits Represent major characteristics of a person Secondary traits Specific personal features “The same fire that melts butter hardens the egg”

469 Hans Esenck (1973-1990) Extraversion Neuroticism Psychoticism
Internally vs. externally orientated Neuroticism Emotionally stable vs. unstable Psychoticism Kind/considerate vs. aggressive/antisocial

470 5 factor model Extraversion Agreeable Conscientiousness
Talkative, energetic, assertive vs. introversion-quiet, shy, reserved Agreeable Sympathetic, kind and affectionate vs. cold quarrelsome and cruel Conscientiousness Organized, responsible and cautious vs. careless, frivolous and irresponsible

471 5 factor model Neuroticism Openness to experience
Stable, calm and contented vs. anxious, unstable and temporal Openness to experience Creative, intellectual and open minded vs. simple, shallow, and unintelligent

472 Trait Habitability Influenced by genetic factors (twin studies)

473 Traits and Predictions
Consistency paradox Observation that personality ratings across time+among different observers are consistent, while behavior rating across situations are not consistent

474 Traits and Predictions
Areas of predictability Cognitive, social, self regulatory, physical strength, motor coordination Shyness Individuals discomfort and or inhibition in interpersonal situations that interferes with pursuing interpersonal or professional goals Born, nurture, cultural, technological

475 Psychodynamic Theories
Assume that personality is shaped by and behavior is motivated by powerful inner forces Freud’s Drivers Eros Sexual urges, preserves species Libido Psychic energy that drives individuals toward sensual pleasures of al types, especially sexual ones Thantos Self-preservation

476 Psychosexual Stages of Development
Oral (0-1) Anal (2-3) Phallic (4-5) Oedipal / Electra complexes Latency (6-12) Genital (13-18) Fixation-person remains attached to objects or activities more appropriate for an earlier stage of psychosexual development

477 Psycho Determinism Mental and behavioral reactions are determined by previous experiences

478 Unconscious Domain of psyche that stores repressed urges and primitive impulses

479 Freud’s Personality Structure
Id Primitive unconscious part of the personality that operates irrationality and acts on impulse to purse pleasure

480 Freud’s Personality Structure
Superego Represents the internalization of society’s values, standards and morals

481 Freud’s Personality Structure
Ego Reality principle Conscious Moderates Id/Superego Self preservation, directs instinctual drives, urges into appropriate channels

482 Ego Defense Mental strategies used by the ego to defend itself against conflicts experienced in the normal course of life Anxiety Intense emotional response caused by the preconscious recognition that a repressed conflict is about to emerge into consciousness

483 Post-Freudian Theories (NeoFreudians)
Emphasis on Ego: Function, defenses, development of self, conscious thought processes and personal mastery Added social variables (culture, family) Less emphasis on sexual energy Life span beyond childhood

484 Alfred Adler (1929) Inferiority complex
Driven by feelings of inferiority

485 Karen Horney (1939) Challenged Freud's issues on the focus of the penis

486 Carl Jung (1959) Collective unconscious
Part of the individual’s unconscious that is inherited, evolutionarily developed and common to all members of the species

487 Carl Jung (1959) Archetypes
Universal, inherited, primitive and symbolic representation of a particular experience or object

488 Carl Jung (1959) Analytic Psychology
Branch of psychology that views the person as a constellation of compensatory internal forces in a dynamic balance

489 Humanistic Theories Humans naturally good, striving for self actualization (Maslow) Person’s constant striving to realize his or their own potential and to develop inherent talents and capabilities Unique tendencies

490 Carl Rogers (1947-77) Organism Self Conditional positive regard
Given to people with conditioning Unconditional positive regard Complete love and acceptance of an individual by another person No conditions attached

491 Karen Horney (1950) “real self” Need favorable atmosphere to develop
Warmth, goodwill, love Get away from due to anxiety Idealized self image “search for glory” Tyranny of should I.e. beautiful, perfect, etc.

492 Karen Horney (1950) Holistic-separate acts as part of whole personality

493 Karen Horney (1950) Dispositional-focus on inner qualities that create actions

494 Karen Horney (1950) Phenomenological-individuals frame of reference

495 Karen Horney (1950) Existential Rollo May (1995)
Higher mental processes

496 Karen Horney (1950) Psychobiography-these use of psychological theory to describe and explain an individual’s course through out life Life story

497 Social Learning and Cognitive Theories
Look at environmental factors Social imitation How we use or mental (mind) to manipulate the environment

498 Walter Mischel (1995) How behavior arises as a function of interactions between persons and situations

499 Albert Bandura (1986) Reciprocal determinism
Complex reciprocal interaction exists among the individual, his or her behavior, and environment all stimuli and that of each of these components affects the others

500 Albert Bandura (1986) Self-efficacy
Set of beliefs that one can perform adequately in a particular situations Includes perceptions, motivations Judgments Vicarious experiences View of others performances Persuasion Others convince you Monitoring yourself (emotional)

501 Albert Bandura (1986) Outcome-based expectations (environmental)
Expectations of failure or success Kind environment might try harder

502 Nancy Cantor (1987) Social intelligence
Refers to expertise people bring to their experience of life task

503 Nancy Cantor (1987) 3 types of social intelligence Choice of life
What is important to you Knowledge relevant to social interactions Level of expertise Strategies for implementing goals Problems solving strategies are all different

504 Criticisms of Social/Cognitive Theories
Overlook emotions Vagueness of explanation about the person’s constructs and competencies are created

505 Self Theories William James (1890)
Material me – body, physical Spiritual me – thoughts, feelings Social me – how others view you

506 Self Concept Person’s mental model of his or her abilities and attributes Motivates, interprets, organizes, mediates, regulates behavior

507 Hazel Markus (1986) Possible selves
Ideal selves that a person would like to becomes the selves a person could become and the selves a person is afraid of becoming Components of the cognitive sense of self Motivate you

508 Self-Esteem Generalized evaluative attitude toward the self that influences both moods and behaviors and that exerts a powerful effect on a range of personal and social behaviors

509 Self-Esteem Self handicapping
Process of developing in anticipation of failure, behavioral reactions and explanations that minimize ability deficits as possible attributions for failure Ready made excuses More likely when outcome will be public

510 Cultural Construction of self
Western self Individualistic 30%

511 Independent Construal of Self
Orientated around one’s thoughts feelings and actions Collectivists 70%

512 Independent Construal of Self
Collectivists Needs of the group Interdependent construal of self Encompassing social relationships Recognized that one’s behavior is determined, contingent on and to a large extent organized by what the actor perceives to be the thoughts, feelings and actions of others

513 Twenty Statements Test (TST) 1934
Kohn and McPartland 20 different answers to “Who am I?” Categories answers Social, ideological, interests, ambitions, self-evaluations

514 Comparing Personality Theories
Heredity vs. Environmental (Nature/nurture) Learning Process vs. Innate Laws of Behavior Modified through society vs. internal time table Emphasis on past, present, future Consciousness vs. unconsciousness Inner disposition vs. other situation

515 Assessment of Personality
Personality inventory Self report questionnaire used for personality assessment Includes a series of items about personal thoughts, feelings and behaviors Most common Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) 10-15 clinical scales I.e. anxiety, type A, self esteem, anger bizarre

516 Neo-PI Neurotic, Extraversion, openness, agreeable conscientiousness

517 Projective Tests A standardized set of ambiguous, abstract stimuli is presented and asked to interpret their meanings Response reveals inner feelings, motives, conflicts 1st used to get into unconscious Rorschach Hermann Rorschach 1921 Ink blots Location Content determinants

518 Therapeutic Appreciation Test (TAT)
Henry Murray 1938 Ambiguous scenes asked to make up stories about it

519 Abnormal Psychology Concerned with understanding the nature of individual pathologies of mind, mood and behavior

520 Criteria for “Abnormal” Label
Distress or disability Maladaptive Irrationality Unconventionality and statistically rare Violation of moral and ideal standards Unpredictability Observer discomfort

521 Mental health Should be thought of on a continuum

522 Phileppe Pinel (1745-1826) People were sick not possessed
Medical model Disorders classified by similarities Emil Kraepelin ( ) Put first type of system together

523 Frans Mesmer( ) Psychological disorders were caused by disruptions in flow of animal magnetism Used hypnotism for the first time

524 Jean Charcot( ) Used hypnotism with hysteria Freud’s teacher

525 Etiology Causes or factors related to the development of a disorder

526 Etiology Biological approach
Structural brain abnormalities, genetic factors, or brain injury

527 Etiology Psychological approaches Psychodynamic theory Behavioral
Freud, unconscious Behavioral Skinner external reinforcement Cognitive Way people perceive reinforcement Sociocultural cultural

528 Diagnosis Label given to a psychological abnormality by classifying and categorizing the observed behavior pattern into an approved diagnostic system

529 Goals Quick and clear understanding among professionals
Understanding of etiology Treatment plan

530 DSM-IV-TR(1994) TR(2004) “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Classifies and describes over 200 disorders Description of patters and symptoms DSM I (1952) DSM II (1968) DMS III-R (1987) Five axes

531 Dropped 1980 DSM III Neurotic disorders
Person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does experience subjective distress

532 Dropped 1980 DSM III Psychotic disorders
Person experiences impairments in reality testing manifested through thought, emotional or perceptual difficulties

533 Others removed Homosexuality (1973) Insanity Legal term, not clinical
State of mind of an individual judged to be legally incompetent

534 Comorbidity Experience of more than one disorder at the same time
56% of the time

535 Psychopathological functioning
Disruptions in emotional behavior or thought process that lead to distress or block one’s ability to achieve important goals

536 Anxiety Disorders Physiological arousal, feelings of tension and intense apprehension without apparent reason.

537 Anxiety Disorders Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Individual feels anxious and worried most of the time Minimum of six months Not threatened by any specific danger or object Muscle tension, fatigue, restlessness, poor concentration, irritability, sleep disturbances

538 Anxiety Disorders Panic disorder
Experience unexpected, severe panic attacks that begin with a feeling of intense apprehension fear or terror Other symptoms Anxiety, rapid heart rate, dizziness, faintness, chocking, smothering

539 Anxiety Disorders Agoraphobia
Extreme fear of being in public places or open spaces from which escape may be difficult or embarrassing

540 Anxiety Disorders Phobias
Persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity or situation that is excessive and unreasonable, given the reality of the threat Social Specific Response to specific types of objects or situations

541 Anxiety Disorders Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessions
Thoughts, images, impulses Compulsions Repetitive, purposeful Person knows their acts are irrational but cannot stop

542 Anxiety Disorders Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Persistent reexperience of traumatic events through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations or dissociative flashback Usually suffer from depression substance abuse and sexual dysfunction Approx. 8% More women than men

543 Anxiety Disorders Causes Biological Psychodynamic (unconscious)
Behavioral cognitive

544 Mood Disorders Disturbance such as severe depression or depression alternating with manic

545 Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder
Intense feelings of depression over an extended time No manic behavior Characteristics Dysphoric (sad) Motor activity Appetite Suicide Sleep Guilt Concentration

546 Mood Disorders Bipolar Disorder
Alternating periods of depression and mania, can be irritable Manic episode Periods of extreme elation unbounded euphoria without sufficient reason and grandiose thoughts or feelings about persons ability Inflated self-esteem Special abilities or powers

547 Mood Disorders Causes Biological Genetic SAD Drugs work
PET scans of brains Cerebral glucose levels higher during manic episodes Genetic Twin studies 67% SAD Lighting due to seasons

548 Mood Disorders Cognitive Aaron Beck (1988) “Set”
Pattern of seeing the world Negative view of self, ongoing experience and future

549 Mood Disorders Martin Selifman Learned Helplessness
General pattern on nonresponding in the presence of noxious stimuli that often follows after an organism has previously experienced non contingent inescapable aversive stimuli Motivation deficits Emotional deficits Cognitive deficits

550 Mood Disorders Gender Women twice as often Think about causes
Men distract themselves

551 Mood Disorders Suicide
50%-80% of people who attempt suffer from depression

552 Personality Disorder A chronic, inflexible, maladaptive patter of perceiving, thinking and behaving that seriously impairs an individual’s ability to function in social or other settings Ten types

553 Personality Disorder Paranoid- distrustful and suspicious
Histrionic- excessive emotionality and attention seeking Narcissistic- grandiose sense of self-importance, fantasy or power Antisocial- sociopath, long pattern of law breaking Borderline- inability to keep relationships

554 Dissociative Disorders
Disturbance in the integration of identity, memory or consciousness Usually due to severe abuse

555 Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Identity Disorder Formerly multiple personality disorder Two or more distinct personalities exist within the same individual The host –main The alters- others

556 Dissociative Disorders
Dissociative Amnesia Inability to remember important personal experiences caused by psychological factors Dissociative Fuge Memory loss with flight

557 Schizophrenia Severe form of psychopathology characterized by breaking down of integrated personality functioning with-drawl from reality, emotional distortions and disturbed thought process Less than 1% Chronic

558 Schizophrenia Hallucination
False perceptions that occur in the absence of objective stimuli

559 Schizophrenia Delusions
False or irrational beliefs maintained despite clear evidence to the contrary

560 Schizophrenia Language distorted Acute phase “word salad”
Active or positive symptoms

561 Schizophrenia Types Disorganized
Displays incoherent patters of thinking and grossly bizarre and disorganized behavior

562 Schizophrenia Catatonic Disruption in motor activities
Frozen in stupor

563 Schizophrenia Paranoid Delusions of persecution Delusions of grandeur
Spied on, plotted against Delusions of grandeur Believe that they are important or exalted beings Delusions of jealousy Mate is unfaithful

564 Schizophrenia Undifferentiated Residual
Grab-bag, hodge-podge of symptoms Residual Free of major symptoms but had episodes in the past

565 Schizophrenia Causes Genetic links- twin studies
Diathesis- stress hypothesis Genetic factors predispose an individual to a certain disorder but that environmental stress factors must impinge in order for potential risk to manifest itself Family Structure

566 Mental Illness Stigma Negative reaction of people to an individual or group because of some assumed inferiority or source of difference that is degraded

567 Therapy and Change Goals Diagnosis Etiology (causes) Prognosis
Starting treatment

568 Therapies Biomedical Alter brain functioning with chemical or physical intervention Drug therapy, surgery, electroconvulsive therapy

569 Therapies Psychotherapies
Focus on changing faulty behaviors, thought, perceptions and emotions that may be associated with specific disorders

570 Therapies Psychodynamic Inner conflict (unconscious) “talk therapy”

571 Therapies Behavioral Treats external Changing surroundings No internal

572 Therapies Cognitive Attempts to change way one thinks
Alter the way one views themselves

573 Therapies Existential/Humanistic
Self actualization, psychological growth, development of more meaningful relationships

574 Therapist Counseling Psychologist
Provide guidance in areas such as vocational selection, school problems, drug abuse and marital conflict

575 Therapist Clinical social worker Considers social context of problems
Collaborates with other professionals Works in family or work setting

576 Therapist Pastoral counselor
Religious person who specializes in the treatment of psychological disorders often combining spirituality with practical problem solving

577 Therapist Clinical psychologist (PHD or PSYD)
Trained in assessment and treatment of psychological problem solving

578 Therapist Psychiatrist
Prescribes medications for the treatment of psychological disorder

579 Therapist Psychoanalyst
Specialized post grad training in Freudian approach

580 Attendee Client Patient
One who is being treated for a psychological disorder not a mental illness Humanistic approach Patient One who is using the biomedical approach

581 History Phillippe Pinel (1801) Clifford Beers (1900’s) 1960’s
Mentally ill are sick and need treatment not warehousing Clifford Beers (1900’s) Mental hygiene movement Rehabilitation goal 1960’s Deinstitutionalize mentally ill Remove wharehousing

582 Cultural US/Western Other cultures Individualizes
Takes person out and fixes them Other cultures Use their own social groups/families

583 Cultural Shamanism Spiritual tradition that involves both healing and gaining contact with the spirit world Mental illness is being powerless Need to personalize to regain power

584 Cultural Ritual healing
Ceremonies that infuse special emotional intensity and meaning into the healing process

585 Psychodynamic Approach
Psychoanalysis Freud An intensive prolonged technique for exploring the unconscious motivations and conflicts in neurotic, anxiety ridden individuals

586 Psychoanalysis Id, Ego, Superego issue Repression understanding
Gain insight(therapy) Therapist guides a patient toward discovering insights between present symptoms and past organs Work with long standing unconscious issues

587 Psychoanalysis Free association
Patient gives a running account of thoughts, wishes, physical sensations and mental issues that occur Freud would say they were predetermined not random Significant patters

588 Psychoanalysis Catharsis
Process of expressing strongly felt but usually repressed emotions

589 Psychoanalysis Resistance
Inability or unwillingness of a patient in psychoanalysis to discuss certain ideas, desires or experiences

590 Psychoanalysis Dream analysis Royal road to the unconscious
Manifest (open visible) Latent (hidden) Psychoanalytic interpretation of dreams used to gain insight into a person’s unconscious motives or conflict

591 Psychoanalysis Transference
Attachment to a therapist feelings formerly held toward some significant person who figured in a past emotional conflict Positive or negative

592 Psychoanalysis Counter Transference
Therapist develops personal feelings about a client due to similarities to someone in the therapists life

593 Neo-Freudian Therapies
Placed more emphasis on patient’s current social environment Continuing influences of life experiences Role of social motivation, interpersonal relationships Importance of ego function, development of the self concept

594 Neo-Freudian Therapies
Harry Stack Sullivan (1953) Stressed social relationships and patient’s needs for acceptance, respect and love Not only internal but current societal and interpersonal relationship

595 Neo-Freudian Therapies
Melanie Klein (1975) Issues with Oedipus conflict (age 4-5) Earlier superego Death instinct greater than sex instinct Love unites and aggression splits the psyche Object relations theory Building blocks of how people experience the world emerge from their relations to loved and hated objects (people)

596 Neo-Freudian Therapies
Heinz Kohut (1977) Emphasis on self Objective relations How various aspects of the self require self objects, supportive people and significant things everyone needs to maintain optimal personality functioning.

597 Behavioral Therapies Behavior Modification
Systematic use of principles of learning to increase the frequency of desired behaviors and or decrease the frequency of problem behaviors

598 Behavioral Therapies Symptom Substitution
Treating external will lead to this according to psychodynamics New psychological problem

599 Behavioral Therapies Counterconditioning
Substitute a new response for a maladaptive one by means of conditioning procedures

600 Behavioral Therapies Systematic desensitization
Client is taught to prevent the arousal they feared, while being taught to relax

601 Behavioral Therapies Implosion therapy (opposite of system desensitization) Client exposed to anxiety-provoking stimuli, through their imagination, in an attempt to extinguish the anxiety with the stimuli

602 Behavioral Therapies Flooding
Therapy for phobias in which clients are exposed, with permission, to the stimuli most frightening to them

603 Behavioral Therapies Keys to systematic desensitization, implosion, flooding exposure

604 Behavioral Therapies Aversion therapy
Therapy to stop people who are attracted to harmful stimuli Attractive (but bad) stimulus is paired w/ a noxious stimulus in order to elicit a negative reaction to the target stimulus I.e. shock with smoking

605 Behavioral Therapies Contingency Management Skinner
Extinction strategies Removing unseen reinforcements that cause unwanted behaviors Changing behavior by modifying its consequences Positive reinforcement Rewards given Shaping Token economies

606 Social-Learning Client observes model’s desirable behaviors being reinforced Albert Bandura (1986)

607 Social-Learning Participant Modeling
Therapist demonstrates desired behavior and client is aided through supportive encouragement to imitate the modeled behavior

608 Social-Learning Social Skills
Responsibilities that allow one to achieve their social goals What to say, how and when

609 Social-Learning Behavioral Rehearsal
Establish and strengthen basic skills Rehearse skills with therapist

610 Cognitive Therapies Attempt to change feelings and behaviors by changing the way a client thinks about or perceives life experiences

611 Cognitive Therapies Cognitive behavior modification
Role of thoughts and attitudes influencing motivations and responses with the behavioral emphasis on changing performance through modifications of reinforcement contingencies Unacceptable behaviors changed into positive coping ones Increase self-efficacy Belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation Also behavioral and cognitive efficiency

612 Cognitive Therapies Changing false beliefs
Unreasonable attitudes (being perfect) False premises (do what others want) Rigid rules (obey, always do the same)

613 Cognitive Therapies Aaron Beck (1976) Uses with depression
Depression due to the lack of awareness to negative, automatic thought How therapy works Challenge client’s basic assumption about functioning Evaluate evidence for and against these thoughts Reattribute blame to situational factor Discuss alternate solution

614 Cognitive Therapies Rational Emotive Therapy Albert Ellis (1962)
Comprehensive system of personality change based on changing irrational beliefs that cause undesirable, highly charged emotional reactions such as severe anxiety How to recognize the “shoulds, oughts, and musts” Get rid of system of faulty beliefs

615 Existential-Humanistic Therapies
Freedom to choose leads to a burden of responsibility Guilt over lost opportunities to achieve full potential

616 Existential-Humanistic Therapies
Human-potential movement (1960’s) Encompasses all those practices and methods that release the potential of the average human being for greater levels of performance and greater richness of experience

617 Existential-Humanistic Therapies
Client-Centered therapy Carl Rogers (1951) Emphasizes the healthy psychological growth of the individual Based on the assumption that all people share the basic tendency of human nature toward self actualization Incongruence Difference between natural positive self image and negative external criticism Unconditional positive regard Non judgmental acceptance and respect for client Geniuses

618 Existential-Humanistic Therapies
Gestalt Therapy Fritz Perls(1969) Focuses on ways to unite mind and body to make a whole person Recreate past/dreams Empty Chair technique Sit across from chair, imagine someone in it, then discuss feelings and problems

619 Group Therapies Advantages
Less threatening for those dealing with their own authority Helps with individual maladaptive behavior Helps with interpersonal skills Helps with corrective expression

620 Group Therapies Couples counseling
Clarify communication problems and improve quality of interactions

621 Group Therapies Family therapy
Psychological spaces and interpersonal dynamics of people as a unit Virginia Satir(1967) Therapist acts as interpreter and clarifier, influences agent mediator and referee

622 Group Therapies Community Support Groups Self help
AA Alcoholics Anonymous Four main categories Addictive behaviors Physical and mental disorders Life transitions traumas

623 Biomedical Therapies Treat brain “hardware” problems Psychosurgery
General term for surgical procedures performed on the brain tissues to alleviate psychological disorders

624 Psychosurgery Severing fibers of the corpus callosum to help seizure activity Sever pathways that mediate limbic system activity

625 Psychosurgery Prefrontal lobotomy
Severs the nerve fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain with the diencephalon especially those fibers of the thalamic and hypothalamic areas Egas Moniz (1949) Worked for schizophrenia and anxiety Left people with inability to plan ahead, childlike actions, indifference about people, emotional flatness and lack of self

626 Biomedical Therapies Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
Use of electroconvulsive shocks as an effective treatment for severe depression Apply weak electric current volts 1/10 – 1 second Can suffer from amnesia

627 Biomedical Therapies Drug Therapies Psycho pharmacology
Investigates the effects of drugs on behavior

628 Biomedical Therapies Antipsychotics
Reduces activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, increases serotonin Decreases brain activity Thorazine, haldol Side Effects Tardive dyskinsea Loss of motor control in face, lips and tongue Agranulocytosis Bone marrow stops making white blood cells Relapse of disease high when off medication

629 Biomedical Therapies Antidepressant drugs
Increase the activity of neurotransmitters norepinepherine and serotnonin Tricyclins (Tofranil, Elavil) Reduce reuptake of neurotransmitters from the synaptic cleft Bicyclins (Prozac) Reduces reuptake of serotonin Monoamine Oxidase (NAO) inhibitors Limits enzyme monoamire oxidase Lithium For bipolar

630 Biomedical Therapies Anti-anxiety drugs Benzodiazapine (Valium, Xanax)
Increased activity of the neurotransmitter GABA GABA regulates inhibitory neurons, increase GABA activity decreases brain activity for anxiety

631 Spontaneous-remission effect
Improvement of some mental patients in psychotherapy without any professional intervention Baseline to see effectiveness of therapist

632 Placebo Effect Therapy independent of any specific clinical procedures that result in client improvement Neutral therapy that creates healing

633 Meta-Analysis Statistic technique for evaluating hypothesis by providing a formal mechanism for detecting the general conclusion found in data from many different experiments Way to check if therapy is having an effect

634 Treatment Evaluations
Large study by the National Institute of Mental Health (1989) Double blind procedure Therapist did not know who got the drug and who got the therapy Symptom relief Drugs 55% Psychodynamic therapy 52% Combo 85%

635 Prevention Primary- start work before condition exists
Secondary- limit duration in future Tertiary- prevent relapse Paradigm shift Change treatment to prevention Change medical disease model to mental health model Focus on situations and ecologies that put people at risk Look for precipitating factors in life

636 Social Psychology Studies the effect of social variables on individual behavior, attitudes, perceptions, and motives Studies group and inter-group phenomena

637 Social Psychology Social roles
A socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person who is functioning in a given setting or group Explicit I.e. school rules Implicit What you learn in situation (I.e. what to call your teacher or boss)

638 Social Psychology Stanford Prison Experiment Social Norms
Guards – acted tough/mean even if they were not before Social Norms Expectation a group has for its members regarding acceptable and appropriate attitudes and behaviors

639 Social Psychology Conformity Informational Influences
Tendency for people to adopt the behaviors, attitudes and values of other members of a reference group Informational Influences Wanting to be correct and to understand the right way to act in a given situation – look to others to show you the way

640 Stanford Prison

641 Social Psychology Autokinetic effect Salmon Asch 1956
Stationary light that looks like it moves Groups agreed which way it moves Salmon Asch 1956 Asch effect Visual activity w/ lines People involved had to match lines People matched wrong lines on purpose 25% - held true 50-80% - conformed to false

642 Asch

643 Social Psychology Group polarization Groupthink
Tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the decisions that would be made by the members acting alone Groupthink Tendency of a decision-making group to filter out undesirable input so that a consensus may be reached , especially if it is in line with the leader’s viewpoint

644 Social Psychology Constructing social reality Social perception
Knowledge people bring into situations that represents how you see the situation Social perception Process by which a person comes to know or perceive the personal attributes of himself or herself and other people

645 Social Psychology Attribute theory
Social cognitive approach to describing the ways the social perceiver uses information to generate causal explanation Answer the “whys” Fritz Heider (1958) Found in the person (dispositional causality) Found in situation (situational causality)

646 Social Psychology Harold Kelly (1967) Uncertainty
Covariation principle People attribute a behavior to a causal factor if that factor was present whenever it did not occur Distinctiveness Consistency Consensus – others behaviors

647 Social Psychology Fundamental attribute error (FAE)
Dual tendency of observers to underestimate the impact of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of dispositional factors on a person’s behavior (blame/credit people) People blame themselves

648 Social Psychology Self serving biases Self-fulfilling prophecies
People tend to take credit for their successes and deny responsibility for their failures Self-fulfilling prophecies Prediction made about some future behavior or event that modifies interactions so as to produce what is expected. Merton (1957) Study with 9 month olds; ½ think boy and ½ think girl

649 Social Psychology Behavioral confirmation Attitude Mark Snyder (1984)
Process by which people behave in ways that elicit others specific expected reactions and then use those reactions to confirm their beliefs Attitude Learned, relatively stable tendency to respond to people, concepts and events in an evaluative way Positive /negative Based or cognitive, affective & behavioral Accessibility Property of an attitude that predicts behavior More accessible when based on direct experience Specificity – better predictor of behavior if more specific

650 Social Psychology Persuasion Deliberate efforts to change attitudes
Elaboration likelihood model How likely it is that people will focus their cognitive processes to elaborate upon a message & therefore follow the central & peripheral routes to persuasion Personal relevance – more likely to look at carefully