1 Key Terms AXON CORTEX DENDRITE MYELIN NEURONS SYNAPSE Objectives Explain what functions each part of the brain controlsDescribe how brain cells work togetherExplain how the brain becomes organizedIdentify activities that support the development of brain pathwaysThe Developing Brain
2 Sight Hearing Smell Touch Taste Newborns learn about the world mainly through their senses:SightHearingSmellTouchTaste
3 Why do we have brains????The brain receives and interprets messages from the bodyThe brain develops the ability to send messages to the body, telling the muscles what to doThe brain learns how to coordinate the messages received through the senses and makemeaning /understanding/ knowledge (Intellect)
4 NeuronsBabies are born with neurons (nerve cells), but as thechild develops, neurons sprout arms called dendritesand axons. The arms connect to create neuralpathways.Dendrites- Receive information from other neurons. Each dendrite can have many different branchesCell Body- The dendrites pass the information to the cell body, where the information is processedAxons- The cell body sends an instruction to the body through the axons which transmit the instructions to the dendrites. Axons which are longer than the dendrites, are coated with a waxy substance called myelin. This substance makes it easier for the info to transmit.
5 How does the brain work? Neurons The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons send and receive messages from one another.How does the brain work?
6 How Neurons WorkNeurons "talk" to each other by sending chemicals (neurotransmitters) to each other across a very tiny space called a synapse. Learning happens when two neurons "talk" to each other. As the brain makes connections, it actually grows dendrites and makes stronger synapses. That means that the more you learn, the heavier your brain gets! So that means you really can "grow" a better brain.
7 Building The Brain More networks = more brain power!!!! The more arms that a neuron grows, and the more links that develop between different neurons, the more networks the brain has.More networks = more brain power!!!!The increased connections also give the brain more flexibility
8 How the Brain Becomes Organized Each child’s brain becomes organized in a unique wayOrganization grows out of the child’s experiencesAs connections between dendrites and axons grow stronger, a group of neurons are linked togetherThey become networks of nerve cells that control an action or thinking taskEach time a network is in use, it gets stronger and the action or task becomes easierMore networks = More Brain POWER!!!
10 PARTS OF THE BRAIN Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe The brain is divided intodifferent sections, calledlobes.Each controls a specificfunctions of the bodyParietal LobeOccipital LobeTemporal LobeFrontal Lobe
11 Cerebral CortexThis newspaper sized "white matter" is the 1/4" outside covering of both brain hemispheres.The cerebral cortex controls your thinking, voluntary movements, language, reasoning, and perceptionIn higher mammals the cortex looks like it has lots of wrinkles, grooves and bumps. Grooves and bumps are also called "gyros." Cortex is the Latin word for "bark."
12 Parietal LobeConnected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature.Also have language functions
13 Occipital LobeInvolved with the brain's ability to recognize objects. It is responsible for our vision.
14 Frontal Lobe Is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech.It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, problem solving, and planning.
15 Temporal Lobe Responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning.The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.
16 CerebellumControls Muscular coordination and balance
17 Brain StemControls involuntary activities such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressureAll information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain
18 Pitutary GlandThe pituitary gland controls your hormones and it helps to turn food to energy.Regulates growth, metabolism, and sexual development
19 Thalamus & Hypothalamus Connects the spinal cord and the cerebrumControls expression of emotionsThe hypothalamus controls your body temperature, emotions, hunger, thirst, appetite, digestion and sleep.
20 AmygdalaThe amygdala (there are two of them) control your emotions such as regulating when you're happy or mad.Your amygdala is very important. Without it you could win the lottery and feel nothing. You wouldn't be happy.
21 HippocampasThe hippocampas forms and stores your memories (scientists think there are other things unknown about the hippocampas) and is involved in learning.Your hippocampus is one of the most important parts of your brain. If you didn't have it, you wouldn't be able to remember anything. People with Alzheimer's Disease loose the functioning of their hippocampas.
22 Rules to Build a Brain By Caregivers can use these research findings to shape the environment of children and help develop their brainsKeep it simple and naturalMatch experiences to the child’s mental capacitiesRemember that practice makes perfectMake sure the child is actively involvedProvide variety, but avoid overloading the childAvoid pushing the child
23 Think Pair ShareThe brain can be re-organized but it is easiest to organize it right the first timeDo you agree? Why or Why not?Write your answer in your journalPair up with a partnerShare answers