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The Developing Brain KEY TERMS AXON CORTEX DENDRITE MYELIN NEURONS SYNAPSE OBJECTIVES Explain what functions each part of the brain controls Describe how.

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Presentation on theme: "The Developing Brain KEY TERMS AXON CORTEX DENDRITE MYELIN NEURONS SYNAPSE OBJECTIVES Explain what functions each part of the brain controls Describe how."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Developing Brain KEY TERMS AXON CORTEX DENDRITE MYELIN NEURONS SYNAPSE OBJECTIVES Explain what functions each part of the brain controls Describe how brain cells work together Explain how the brain becomes organized Identify activities that support the development of brain pathways

2 Newborns learn about the world mainly through their senses: Sight Hearing Smell Touch Taste

3 Why do we have brains???? The brain receives and interprets messages from the body The brain develops the ability to send messages to the body, telling the muscles what to do The brain learns how to coordinate the messages received through the senses and make meaning /understanding/ knowledge (Intellect)

4 Babies are born with neurons (nerve cells), but as the child develops, neurons sprout arms called dendrites and axons. The arms connect to create neural pathways. Dendrites - Receive information from other neurons. Each dendrite can have many different branches Cell Body- The dendrites pass the information to the cell body, where the information is processed Axons- The cell body sends an instruction to the body through the axons which transmit the instructions to the dendrites. Axons which are longer than the dendrites, are coated with a waxy substance called myelin. This substance makes it easier for the info to transmit. Neurons

5 How does the brain work? NEURONS The brain is made up of billions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons send and receive messages from one another.

6 How Neurons Work Neurons "talk" to each other by sending chemicals (neurotransmitters) to each other across a very tiny space called a synapse. Learning happens when two neurons "talk" to each other. As the brain makes connections, it actually grows dendrites and makes stronger synapses. That means that the more you learn, the heavier your brain gets! So that means you really can "grow" a better brain.

7 Building The Brain The more arms that a neuron grows, and the more links that develop between different neurons, the more networks the brain has. More networks = more brain power!!!! The increased connections also give the brain more flexibility

8 How the Brain Becomes Organized Each child’s brain becomes organized in a unique way Organization grows out of the child’s experiences As connections between dendrites and axons grow stronger, a group of neurons are linked together They become networks of nerve cells that control an action or thinking task Each time a network is in use, it gets stronger and the action or task becomes easier More networks = More Brain POWER!!!

9 Networks in the Brain

10 PARTS OF THE BRAIN The brain is divided into different sections, called lobes. Each controls a specific functions of the body Parietal Lobe Occipital Lobe Temporal Lobe Frontal Lobe

11 Cerebral Cortex This newspaper sized "white matter" is the 1/4" outside covering of both brain hemispheres. The cerebral cortex controls your thinking, voluntary movements, language, reasoning, and perception In higher mammals the cortex looks like it has lots of wrinkles, grooves and bumps. Grooves and bumps are also called "gyros." Cortex is the Latin word for "bark."

12 Parietal Lobe Connected with the processing of nerve impulses related to the senses, such as touch, pain, taste, pressure, and temperature. Also have language functions

13 Occipital Lobe Involved with the brain's ability to recognize objects. It is responsible for our vision.

14 Frontal Lobe Is concerned with emotions, reasoning, planning, movement, and parts of speech. It is also involved in purposeful acts such as creativity, judgment, problem solving, and planning.

15 Temporal Lobe Responsible for hearing, memory, meaning, and language. They also play a role in emotion and learning. The temporal lobes are concerned with interpreting and processing auditory stimuli.

16 Cerebellum Controls Muscular coordination and balance

17 Brain Stem Controls involuntary activities such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure All information to and from our body passes through the brain stem on the way to or from the brain

18 Pitutary Gland The pituitary gland controls your hormones and it helps to turn food to energy. Regulates growth, metabolism, and sexual development

19 Thalamus & Hypothalamus Connects the spinal cord and the cerebrum Controls expression of emotions The hypothalamus controls your body temperature, emotions, hunger, thirst, appetite, digestion and sleep.

20 Amygdala The amygdala (there are two of them) control your emotions such as regulating when you're happy or mad. Your amygdala is very important. Without it you could win the lottery and feel nothing. You wouldn't be happy.

21 Hippocampas The hippocampas forms and stores your memories (scientists think there are other things unknown about the hippocampas) and is involved in learning. Your hippocampus is one of the most important parts of your brain. If you didn't have it, you wouldn't be able to remember anything. People with Alzheimer's Disease loose the functioning of their hippocampas.

22 Rules to Build a Brain By Caregivers can use these research findings to shape the environment of children and help develop their brains Keep it simple and natural Match experiences to the child’s mental capacities Remember that practice makes perfect Make sure the child is actively involved Provide variety, but avoid overloading the child Avoid pushing the child

23 Think Pair Share The brain can be re-organized but it is easiest to organize it right the first time Do you agree? Why or Why not? 1. Write your answer in your journal 2. Pair up with a partner 3. Share answers


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