2Sensation and Perception Sensation is conscious awareness of a stimulusPerception is understanding what a sensation means
3Types of Receptors Mechanoreceptors Thermoreceptors Pain receptors ChemoreceptorsOsmoreceptorsPhotoreceptors
4Assessing a Stimulus Action potentials don’t vary in amplitude Brain tells nature of stimulus by:Particular pathway that carries the signalFrequency of action potentials along an axonNumber of axons recruited
19Visual Accommodation Adjustments of the lens Ciliary muscle encircles lens, attaches to itWhen this muscle relaxes, lens flattens, moves focal point farther backWhen it contracts, lens bulges, moves focal point toward front of eye
20The Photoreceptors Rods Cones Contain the pigment rhodopsin Detect very dim light, changes in light intensityConesThree kinds; detect red, blue, or greenProvide color sense and daytime vision
22Taste A special sense Chemoreceptors Five primary sensations Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami
23Smell A special sense Olfactory receptors Receptor axons lead to olfactory lobeolfactorybulbreceptorcell
24Sensory PerceptionSensory Cortexes; visual, auditory, smell, taste, somatosensory. Register current incoming sensory signals.Sensory Association Areas for each sense store sensory memory and automatically compare current with past to provide meaning.
25Common Integrating Area (CIA) Integrates messages from sensory cortexes and association areas to understand.Also known as the gnostic area = knowingCIA capacity is limited = what your looking at and/or listening to.
26MemoryCIA must Recall memory from the sensory association areas. Facilitated pathways help.The the CIA Remembers (puts the separate sensory messages back together)
27Thought Process CIA is in command Sensory Association Areas provide memoryFrontal Lobes provide temporary storage, i.e., train of thoughtLimbic System provides emotional imput