2 BACTERIA smallest, simplest organism, unicellular Most abundant organismProkaryotic cell…very simple, NO nucleus, ribosomes, cytoplasm, circular DNA, cell membrane, some have cell walls
3 BACTERIA CLASSIFICATION Archaebacteria“old” bacteriaFound in inhospitable conditionsThree types1. Heat lovers…found in hot springs, paint pots, ocean vents2. Methane makers…found in swamps3. Salt lovers…found in high salt environments…ie: Dead SeaEubacteriaMost commonFound everywhereGrouped by how obtain food1. producers…make own food2. decomposers…consumer that breaks down matter to obtain nutrients3. parasites…consumer that obtain nutrients by feeding off other organisms
5 Bactria Reproduction… Binary Fission Bacteria reproduce in a process called BINARY FISSION1. Cell grows larger2. DNA replicates and attaches to the cell membrane3. The DNA and its copy separate as the cell grows larger4. The cell splits in two.* each new cell contains identical DNA
6 For MOST bacteria…Ideal conditions for reproduction are warm and moist For MOST bacteria…Ideal conditions for reproduction are warm and moist. When conditions are not ideal, some will survive by forming and ENDOSPORE, a hard protective covering. Many bacteria can survive boiling, freezing, and extremely dry conditions. When conditions become favorable again, endospores can break open and bacteria can become active again.
7 Good BacteriaNitrogen Fixing Bacteria… takes nitrogen from the air and change it to a useable form plants can use Decomposing Bacteria… breaks down dead matter so nutrients are available for new plants Bioremediation… bacteria converts pollution into harmless chemicals … used to clean up wastes, oil spills and remove toxins from soils
8 Good Bacteria…continued Genetically Engineered Bacteria…To produce…medicine, insecticides, cleaners, adhesives and some foodsMedicines such as…ANTIBIOTICS…chemicals used to kill bacteria and other microorganismsINSULIN so diabetics are able to process sugars and carbohydratesFoods… (BLANK)to help make some sausage, some dairy products (cheese/yogurt/cottage cheese, etc), pickles
9 Bad Bacteria Pathogenic Bacteria (Cause disease) They invade the host and obtain nutrients from the host, weakening the host and causing damage to the hostMost can be treated with ANTIBIOTICSHuman Diseases caused by Bacteria…cavities, ear infections, strep throat, food poisoningCan cause disease in animals but also in plants, protists, fungi and other bacteria!
11 VIRUSES Microscopic particle that invades a cell, often destroying it Found everywhereMany diseases are caused by virusesContains a protein and nucleic acid (genetic material)DO NOT eat, grow, use airCan only reproduce with HELP from a hostThe are NOT living!
12 VIRUS CLASSIFICATION Viruses are classified in many ways… Type of diseaseLife cycleType of genetic materialShape
14 VIRAL REPRODUCTION Viruses MUST have a host to reproduce The reproduction process isthe LYTIC CYCLEA. Virus finds a host cellB. Virus enters cell OR DNA is injected into cellC. Virus’ DNA takes over control of the cellD. Cell produces new virusesE. New viruses break out of the cell and invade other cells
15 Diseases Caused by Viruses Common coldInfluenzaPolioChicken poxMeaslesMumps
16 VACCINES Vaccines are used to build up an individual’s immune system by…1. Inject a weakened or “dead” virus into the body(the shot)The body’s immune system recognizes the invader and begins to build up antibodies (an army) to fight the virusThe body’s immune system is able to build up the antibodies to fight the virus because the virus is not very strong.4. The next time the virus in introduced into the body, the body recognizes the virus and already has the antibodies (army) to fight the virus.Common vaccines: polio, measles/mumps/rubella (MMR), influenza, chicken pox, hepatitis
17 Infectious vs Non-infectious Non-infectious Disease…a disease that is not transmitted from person to person Infectious Disease…a disease that is caused by a pathogen (bacteria, virus, fungus, protist) can generally be transferred from person to person
18 Protists Microscopic organisms Found commonly in pond water Cause dysenteryDon’t drink water from Mexico