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Virus/Bacteria Test Review. Viruses are considered to be nonliving because they are not made of __________ – cells The inner core of a virus contains.

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Presentation on theme: "Virus/Bacteria Test Review. Viruses are considered to be nonliving because they are not made of __________ – cells The inner core of a virus contains."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virus/Bacteria Test Review

2 Viruses are considered to be nonliving because they are not made of __________ – cells The inner core of a virus contains ___________ ________________ – Genetic material When a virus invades a living cell, its _______ _______________ takes over the cell’s functions. – Genetic material Unlike the cells of other organisms, the cells of bacteria do not have _____________. – nuclei

3 The ________ __________ is the outer most structure of most bacterial cells. – Cell wall Bacteria that are ________________ break down large chemicals in dead organisms into smaller chemicals. – decomposers Scientists think that today’s ______________ closely resemble Earth’s 1 st life forms. – archaebacteria _____________ occurs when a bacterium transfers some of its genetic material to another bacterium. – Conjugation

4 The bacteria that cause Lyme disease are transmitted through ______ ______________. – Tick bites ________________, such as penicillin, are chemicals that can kill bacteria. – Antibiotics Why are viruses like parasites? – They destroy the cells they enter A virus needs energy to: – multiply The genetic material of a virus is found in its – core

5 A virus’s proteins are important because they: – Help the virus attach to its host An active virus does NOT: – Become a part of the host cell’s genetic material The ability of a virus that makes them useful in gene therapy is their ability to: – Enter cells Bacteria can be the following shapes: – Rod shaped, spiral shaped, round shaped __________ ___________ is found in the cytoplasm of bacterial cells. – Genetic material

6 The process of __________ results in genetically different bacteria. – conjugation Endospores form during: – Harsh environmental conditions Bacteria called decomposers play an important role because they: – Return basic chemicals to the environment Bacteria that live in the human body play an important role by: – Making vitamins An example of indirect contact that spreads contagious diseases is – Inhaling infected drops of moisture

7 An example of an infectious disease that is not transmitted by an animal bite is: – botulism The best treatment for most viral infections is: – Bed rest A vaccine works by: – Activating the body’s natural defenses A characteristic of archaebacteria is that they: – Thrive in extreme environments Binary Fission is the bacterial process of: – Asexual reproduction

8 Viruses are considered to be nonliving because they: – Are not cells The process of breaking down food to release energy is called: – respiration Heterotrophic bacteria obtain food by: – Consuming autotrophs & other heterotrophs A virus named for the organism that it infects is a: – bacteriophage The _________ provides energy for a virus. – host

9 The ______ provides energy for the virus. – host Virus particles are: – Smaller than cells A virus’ coat does NOT contain: – Genetic material A hidden virus: – Becomes part of the host cell’s genetic material ____________ are always found in bacterial cells. – Ribosomes “Antibiotic Resistant” refers to bacteria that – Survive in the presence of antibiotics

10 __________ can be contracted by inhaling infected droplets. – Chicken Pox Bacteria are classified in two kingdoms based on their __________. – Chemicals A virus can multiply only when it is inside its ______ – host Although viruses are nonliving, they act like _____________ because they destroy the cells in which they multiply. – parasites

11 A virus’s _________________ contains the instructions for making new viruses. – Genetic material The shape of the ______________ in the virus’ coat allows the virus to attach to certain cells. – proteins A virus that begins to multiply immediately after it enters a cell is called an ____________ virus. – active When a _________ virus enters a cell, the virus’s genetic material becomes a part of the cell’s genetic material – hidden

12 Some bacteria move using a long, whip-like structure called a _____________. – Flagella Bacteria are called ________________ because their genetic material is not contained in nuclei – Prokaryotes Bacterial cells contain ______________ which are chemical factories where proteins are produced. – ribosomes Many bacteria are called ________________ because they break down large chemicals from dead organisms to smaller chemicals – decomposers

13 Bacteria in the swellings on the roots of peanut plants convert ____________ gas from the air into compounds the plants need to grow. – nitrogen Many bacteria that live in extreme environments, such as hot springs, belong to the ____________ kingdom. – Archaebacteria When bacteria reproduce by 1 bacteria dividing & forming 2 identical bacteria, it is called__________ _________ – Binary fission

14 During a process called ________ ________, one bacterium divides to form 2 identical bacteria. – Binary fission Illnesses that pass from one organism to another are called ________________. – Infectious diseases Infectious diseases are spread by contact with contaminated people & objects, with animals, & with _________________. – Environmental sources Some bacteria cause diseases by producing poisons known as ______________. – toxins

15 A substance that stimulates the body to produce chemicals that destroy viruses or bacteria is called a ______________ – vaccine The only characteristic that viruses share with other living organisms is the ability to _________. – Multiply Bacteria that survive in the presence of an antibiotic are said to be ____________ tot eh antibiotic. – Resistant

16 The previous slides provide correct answers to questions that appear on the test. If you study these terms, you should not have any problem with this test. The order & configuration of the questions may be different than this review.

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