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Presentation on theme: "Bacteria."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacteria

2 Structure One celled organisms that occur alone or in chains or groups
Three basic shapes Spheres, called cocci Rods, called bacilli Spirals, called spirilla Cell contains cytoplasm surrounded by cell membrane and cell wall Ribosomes in cytoplasm, too

3 Structure Continued Classified as prokaryotic because they don’t contain a membrane bound nucleus or other organelles Genetic material is found in its one circular chromosome in cytoplasm Some have smaller circular piece of DNA called a plasmid

4 Special Features Some bacteria have:
Thick, gelatin like capsule around cell wall for protection and to help stick to surfaces Hair-like projections- help stick to surfaces Slime layer- enables bacteria to stick to surrounding surfaces and reduce water loss Flagella- whip-like tails that help bacteria move

5 Reproduction Fission- process that produces two new cells with identical genetic material to each other and that of the original cell Some bacteria exchange genetic material by lining up next to each other and exchanging DNA through a small tube

6 Obtaining Food and Energy
Producers Consumers Some bacteria contain chlorophyll or other pigments to make own food using energy from Sun Others use energy from chemical reactions Some break down dead organisms to obtain energy Others live as parasites of living organisms and absorb nutrients from their host

7 Aerobic Vs. Anaerobic Aerobe Anaerobe
Break down food and obtain energy through respiration Most bacteria (and us!) Organism adapted to live without oxygen Anaerobic bacteria live in intestinal track of humans Some bacteria cannot survive when exposed to oxygen

8 Kingdoms Bacteria classified into two kingdoms
Eubacteria Scientists study many characteristics to classify eubacteria into smaller groups Archaebacteria contain bacteria found in extreme conditions, such as hot springs

9 Cyanobacteria A eubacteria producer that makes own food using carbon dioxide, water, and energy from sun. produce oxygen as a waste. Live in colonies are an important food source for some organisms in lakes, ponds, and oceans. Oxygen produced by them is used by other aquatic organisms. However, can cause blooms that are harmful to organisms

10 Consumer Eubacteria Classified into two categories based on results of Gram’s stain Bacteria treated with chemical called stain. Gram positive bacteria stain purple because they have thicker cell walls Gram negative bacteria stain pink because they have thinner cell walls Composition of cell wall can determine how effective certain medicines will be against the bacteria One group does not have cell walls, allowing them to change shape. One type of these causes pneumonia

11 Archaebacteria One group lives in salty environments like Dead Sea
Others love hot or acidic environments, living near ocean vents or hot springs

12 Methane producers Some archaebacteria use carbon dioxide for energy and release methane gas as a waste. They are used in sewage treatment by breaking down the waste material that has been filtered out

13 Beneficial Bacteria Some bacteria produce chemicals called antibiotics that limit the growth of other bacteria Consumer bacteria called saprophytes uses dead organisms as food and energy sources By helping to recycle nutrients, the nutrients become available to other organisms

14 Nitrogen fixing bacteria
Plants and animals need nitrogen to make proteins and nucleic acids Plants need nitrogen from the soil or air Nitrogen-fixing bacteria change nitrogen from the air into forms that plants and animals can use Some plants, like peanuts, have nodules that contain these bacteria

15 Bioremediation Using organisms to help clean up environmental pollutants One type uses bacteria to break down wastes and pollutants into simpler harmless compounds Oil spill cleanup by bioremediation likely to increase in future

16 Bacteria and Food Bacteria used to make yogurt, cheese, and buttermilk
Other foods made using bacteria are sauerkraut, vinegar, pickles, olives, soy sauce

17 Other Uses of Bacteria Medicines, enzymes, cleansers, adhesives
Methane gas produced by bacteria used as fuel for heating, cooking, and industry, as well as breaking down plant and animal material

18 Harmful Bacteria Not all bacteria is good!
Pathogen- any organism that causes disease Bacteria causes strep throat, whooping cough, anthrax, botulism, and more

19 Bacteria and Toxins Some bacteria produce poisonous substances known as toxins Ex: botulism a type of food poisoning that can cause paralysis or death When growing conditions unfavorable, bacteria can produce thick-walled structures called endospores, which can exist hundreds of years before resuming growth Commercially canned food undergo process that uses steam at high pressure to kill bacteria and endospores

20 Pasteurization Unless it’s been sterilized, all food contains bacteria
Pasteurization process of heating food to a temperature that kills most harmful bacteria but causes little change to taste of food ex: milk, some fruit juice, yogurt all pasteurized

21 Treating Bacterial Diseases
Bacterial diseases usually treated with antibiotics. Penicillin, an antibiotic, prevents bacteria from making cell walls Vaccines made from damaged particles taken from bacteria cell walls or dead bacteria. When vaccine injected, white blood cells recognize bacteria so that if it enters body again, white blood cells will attack it

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