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Bacteria and Viruses Chp 10 P. Lobosco. Bacteria and Archaea  Members of the domain Bacteria live in soil, water and other organisms.  The domain Archaea.

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Presentation on theme: "Bacteria and Viruses Chp 10 P. Lobosco. Bacteria and Archaea  Members of the domain Bacteria live in soil, water and other organisms.  The domain Archaea."— Presentation transcript:

1 Bacteria and Viruses Chp 10 P. Lobosco

2 Bacteria and Archaea  Members of the domain Bacteria live in soil, water and other organisms.  The domain Archaea includes organisms that area found in extreme environments, such as hot springs.  These two domains are the oldest forms of life on Earth.

3 Characteristics of Bacteria  There are more bacteria on Earth than there are all other living things combined.  Most bacteria are too small to be seen without a microscope.  Bacterium are many sizes. The largest bacteria are 1000 times as large as the average Bacterium.

4 Shape of Bacteria  Bacteria are usually one of four main shapes, rod shaped, spherical, spiral shaped or thread-like.

5 The Shape of Bacteria  Most bacteria have a rigid cell wall that gives them their shape.

6 Filamentous  Filamentous bacteria are thread like

7 Bacilli are rod shaped bacteria.

8 Cocci Cocci are Spherical Shaped Bacteria.

9 Spirilla are Spiral Shaped Bacteria ..

10 Flagella  Some bacteria have hair-like parts called flagella that helps them move around. Flagella spin to push a bacterium through water or other liquids.

11 Prokaryote  An organism that does not have a nucleus is a prokaryote. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus.

12 Prokaryotes  Prokaryotes function as independent organisms but they may stick together to form strand or films. Prokaryotes are much simpler and smaller than eukaryotes. They also reproduce differently.

13 Prokaryote Reproduction

14 Binary Fission  Binary fission is reproduction in which one single-celled organism splits into two single-celled organisms.  Prokaryotes have no nucleus so their DNA is not surrounded by a membrane.

15 1 st Step The DNA of prokaryotes is in circular loops. In the first step of binary fission, the cell’s DNA is copied.

16 2 nd Step The DNA and its copy then bind to different places on the inside of the cell membrane.

17 3 rd Step As the cell and its membrane grows bigger, the loops of DNA separate

18 4 th Step When the cell is double its original size, the membrane pinches inward and a new cell wall forms and separates into two new cells, each an exact copy of the parent cell.

19 Endospores  Most species of bacteria do well in warm, moist places. In dry or cold surroundings, some species of bacteria will die. In these conditions, other bacteria become inactive and form endospores.

20 Endospore  An endospore contains genetic material and proteins and is covered by a thick, protective coat. Many endospores can survive in hot, cold and very dry places.

21 Endospore  When conditions improve, the endospores break open and the bacteria becomes active again.

22 The Domain Bacteria  Most known prokaryotes are bacteria. The Domain Bacteria has more individual organisms than all other domains combined do. Bacteria have lived on the earth for more than 3.5 billion years.

23 Classification of Bacteria  Bacteria are classified in part by the way they get their food.  Most bacteria are consumers. They eat other organisms like leaves.  Some bacteria are decomposers which feed on dead organisms.  Other bacterial consumers live in or on the body of another organism.  Bacteria that make their own food using energy from sunlight are producers.

24 Cyanobacteria are producers that usually live in water.

25 Cyanobacteria  Cyanobacteria contain the green pigment chlorophyll.  Chlorophyll is important to photosynthesis, the process of making food from the energy in sunlight.

26 Cyanobacteria  Some have a blue pigment. Some have a red pigment.  Flamingos get their pink color from eating red cyanobacteria.

27 The Domain Archaea  The three main types of archaea are:  heat lovers  salt lovers  methane makers.

28 Heat Lovers  Heat lovers live in ocean vents and hot springs.  They live in very hot water, usually from 60° to 80°C, but they can survive temperatures of more than 250°C.

29 Salt Lovers  Salt lovers live in environments that have high levels of slat such as the Dead Sea or the Great Salt Lake.

30 Methane Makers  Methane makers give off methane gas and live in swamps and animal intestines.

31 Harsh Environments  Archaea live where nothing else can.  Most archaea prefer environments where there is little or no oxygen.  They have been found beneath 430 m of ice in Antarctica.

32 Good for the Environment  Bacteria are good for the environment. Bacteria is a part of:  Nitrogen fixation  Recycling  Cleaning up

33 Recycling Dead Matter  Life could not exist without bacteria since they recycle dead matter..

34 Nitrogen Fixation  Plants need nitrogen to grow.  Nitrogen makes up 78% of the air.  Nitrogen fixing bacteria take oxygen from the air and change it into a form that plants can use.

35 Cleaning Up  Bacteria and other microorganisms are also used to fight pollution.  Bioremediation means using microorganisms to change harmful chemicals into harmless ones.

36 Good for People  Bacteria is also good for people in many ways.  Bacteria in food  Making Medicines  Insulin  Genetic Engineering

37 Bacteria in your Food  Yogurt, buttermilk and sour cream are all made with bacteria.  Lactic-acid producing bacteria break down the sugar in milk, which is called lactose, and change it into lactic acid.

38 Making Medicine  Antibiotics are medicines used to kill bacteria and other microorganisms.  Many antibiotics are made by bacteria.

39 Insulin  The human body needs insulin to break down and use sugar and carbohydrates.  People who have diabetes do not make enough insulin.  Scientists put genes into bacteria so they will make insulin.

40 Genetic Engineering  When scientists change the genes of any living thing it is called genetic engineering.  In 1973 they put genes from a frog into bacteria that then began to make copes of the frog genes.

41 Harmful Bacteria  Pathogenic bacteria cause disease by getting inside a host organism and taking nutrients from the host’s cell and harming the host.  People cam get vaccines to protect against disease.

42 Diseases in other Organisms  Pathogenic bacteria attack plants, animals, protists, fungi and other bacteria.  Scientists have genetically engineering plants to be resistant to disease causing bacteria.

43 Viruses  A virus is a microscopic particle that gets inside a cell and often destroys the cell.  Many viruses cause diseases, such as the common cold, flu and AIDS.

44 Viruses  Viruses are smaller than the smallest bacteria.  About 5 billion virus particles could fit in a single drop of blood.  Viruses can change rapidly. This makes them hard to fight.

45 Are Viruses Living?  Viruses contain protein and genetic material.  They can’t eat, grow, break down food or use oxygen.  They cannot function on their own.  It can only reproduce inside a living cell that serves as a host.  A host is a living thing that a virus or parasite live on or in.  The virus forces the host to make viruses rather than healthy new cells.

46 Classifying Viruses  Viruses are classified by  Their shape  The type of disease they cause  The kind of genetic material they contain.

47 Crystal shaped viruses like the Polio Virus cause disease.

48 Sphere shaped Viruses Influenza viruses look like spheres. HIV is another virus that has this structure

49 Cylinder shaped Viruses  The tobacco mosaic virus is shaped like a cylinder and attacks tobacco plants.

50 Spacecraft  One group of viruses attacks only bacteria.  Many of these look like spacecraft.

51 Virus  Every virus is made up of genetic material inside a protein coat.  The protein coat protects the virus and helps it to enter a host cell.

52 Genetic Material in Viruses  The genetic material in a virus is either RNA or DNA.  Most RNA is made of one strand of nucelotides.  Most DNA is made up of two strands of nucleotides.

53 Viruses and Sickness  The viruses that cause warts and chicken pox contain DNA.  The viruses that cause colds and the flu contain RNA.  The virus that causes AIDS contains RNA.

54 The Lytic Cycle  The viruses attack living cells and make more of themselves.  This cycle is called the Lytic Cycle.

55 The Lysogenic Cycle  Some viruses don’t go straight into the lytic cycle.  These viruses put their genetic material into the host but remains inactive.  When a virus is in a resting phase this known as the lysogenic cycle.

56 Treating a Virus  Antibiotics do not kill viruses.  Scietitst have developed antiviral medicines which stop viruses from reproducing.  Vaccinations keep you from getting a viral infection, such as chickenpox.


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