Presentation on theme: "The Sociological Perspective"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Sociological Perspective The systematic study of human society
2 What is Sociology ?Scientific study of society and human behavior (Henslin, 2007)Systematic, scientific study of human society (Thio, 2000; Macionis, 2003)Scientific study of human and social behavior (Robertson, 1989)The process of scientific inquiry into social attitudes and behaviors and the cultural products of those attitudes and behaviors (Lamberton, 1998)The scientific study of human society; the study of social behavior and the interaction of people in groups (Landis, 1980)Nothing less than a special form of consciousness (Berger, 1963)
3 What is Sociology ?Scientific study of society and human behavior (Henslin, 2006)Systematic, scientific study of human society (Thio, 2000; Macionis, 2003)Scientific study of human and social behavior (Robertson, 1989)The process of scientific inquiry into social attitudes and behaviors and the cultural products of those attitudes and behaviors (Lamberton, 1998)The scientific study of human society; the study of social behavior and the interaction of people in groups (Landis, 1980)Nothing less than a special form of consciousness (Berger, 1963)
4 ScienceRequires the development of theories that can be tested by systematic researchA body of knowledge obtained by logical, systematic methods of research which allows researchers to form generalizations (Honesty)Places isolated, seemingly meaningless events into patterns we understand
5 “...The systematic study of human society ” What Is Sociology?“...The systematic study of human society ”SystematicScientific discipline that focuses attention on patterns of behaviorHuman societyGroup behavior is primary focus; how groups influence individuals and vice versaAt the “heart of sociology”The sociological perspective which offers a unique view of society
6 Branches of ScienceNatural ScienceSocial Science
7 Social Sciences Sociology Economics Psychology Political Science Anthropology
21 Global PerspectiveThe study of the larger world and our society’s place in it.
22 Why Take Sociology? Education and liberal arts Well-rounded as a personSocial expectationsMore appreciation for diversityThe global villageDomestic social marginalityEnhanced life chancesMicro and macro understandingIncrease social potentials
23 Village of 100 people http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNnbO8x4JAY
24 Benefits of the Sociological Perspective Helps us assess the truth of common senseHelps us assess both opportunities and constraints in our livesEmpowers us to be active participants in our societyHelps us live in a diverse world
25 Importance of Global Perspective Where we live makes a great difference in shaping our livesSocieties throughout the world are increasingly interconnected through technology and economics.Many problems that we face in the United States are more serious elsewhere.Thinking globally is a good way to learn more about ourselves.
26 Global Map 1.1 Women’s Childbearing in Global Perspective
27 The Sociological Perspective Peter Berger Seeing the general in the particularSociologists identify general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals.Seeing the strange in the familiarGiving up the idea that human behavior is simply a matter of what people decide to doUnderstanding that society shapes our lives
28 Sociological Perspective and Sociological Imagination C. Wright Mills
29 Sociological Imagination “History” is happening so quickly that we can’t process what’s going on and we can’t notice that the world is changing quicker than ever before (Changes- technology, etc.)In general the average person is too scared or chooses to not to look at the bigger picture.
30 C. Wright Mills’ Sociological Imagination The power of the sociological perspective lies not just in changing individual lives but in transforming society.Society, not people’s personal failings, is the cause of social problems.The sociological imagination transforms personal troubles into public issues.One cannot understand oneself without understanding the social and historical context in which one lives.
32 Honesty Do you consider yourself an “Honest person”? Using a “sociological imagination” or perspective, what factors can you suggest might influence a person’s honesty?How would you rate the level of honesty in your immediate milieu? School, neighborhood, community, nation…
33 Sociological Imagination Groups -Discuss Sociological Imagination-IllustrationsIn groupsThinking Globally -pg. 8Seeing Sociology in Everyday Life- p. 10In the Times- pg. 11Thinking about Diversity -p. 18Controversy & Debate -pg. 21
35 Emile DurkheimFrench Sociologist, concerned with Social Order and Social IntegrationPioneered sociological research with his study of suicide
36 Durkheim’s Study of Suicide Emile Durkheim’s research showed that society affects even our most personal choices.More likely to commit: male Protestants who were wealthy and unmarriedLess likely to commit: male Jews and Catholics who were poor and marriedOne of the basic findings: Why?The differences between these groups had to do with “social integration.”Those with strong social ties had less of a chance of committing suicide.
37 National Map 1.1 Suicide Rates across the United States
38 Figure 1.1Rate of Death by Suicide, by Race and Sex, for the United States.
39 Teenage SuicideApplying what you understand from the Sociological Imagination (perspective) discuss in your group: “How does the social and historical milieu suggest that the personal trouble of suicide is reflective of a public issue of teen suicide.
40 Web Access: Sociology http://www.phschool.com/access Create a login and password (see requirements/suggestions)Access code:SSNAST-ABOHM-CUING-DAGAN-MYTHS-VIRES
41 The Origins of Sociology One of the youngest of academic disciplines, sociology has its origins in powerful social forces.Social ChangeIndustrialization, urbanization, political revolution, and a new awareness of societyScience3-Stages: theological, metaphysical & scientificPositivism–A way of understanding based on scienceGender & RaceThese important contributions have been pushed to the margins of society.
42 Sociological Perspective Learning to look at society in different waysHelps us see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individualsEncourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds
43 From our limited experiences … Judge the greater societyPlace blinders on our viewsDevelop our prejudicesDevelop our discriminationsDevelop our concepts of right and wrong
44 Sociological Imagination allows us to think “globally” Where we live makes a great difference in shaping our livesSocieties are increasingly interconnectedMany US problems are more serious elsewhereGood way to learn about ourselves
45 The Development of Sociology Social/Political Factors of the Industrial RevolutionRise of factory-based economyEmergence of great citiesEuropean political and social changesFlood of Anthropological DataInfluences from Natural Sciences
46 Auguste Comte 1798-1857 The Father of Sociology French philosopher who coined the term “Sociology”Favored “positivism”Concerned with Statics and Dynamics
47 Herbert SpencerLike Comte, concerned with Social Order and Social ChangeDeveloped “Organism” theoryApplied Darwin’s Theories of Evolution to societies“Survival of the fittest”
48 Karl MarxAn economist, concerned with Social Change through Social Conflict and revolutionDeveloped theories of Class Conflict
49 Max WeberGerman Sociologist who emphasized under- standing the social world from the viewpoint of the individualsClaimed that religion is a central force in social change, particularly in the advancement of capitalism in Protestant and Catholic countries.Stressed Value Freedom
50 Harriet Martineau 1802-1876 First woman sociologist Translated Comte’s work from French to EnglishStudied British and American societies
51 Jane Addams 1860-1935 Key founder of American sociology Developed study strategies to solve social problemsFounded the Hull HouseInstrumental in the formation of several government programs
52 W.E.B. Du BoisFirst African American to receive a doctorate from HarvardCreated the NAACPConcerned with racial equalityAdvocated the use of force to gain equality
53 Sociological TheoryTheory: a statement of how and why facts are relatedExplains social behavior to the real worldTheoretical paradigm: A set of fundamental assumptions that guides thinkingStructural-functionalSocial-conflictSymbolic-interaction
54 Sociology- John Macionis To Access Textbook online: Do the following:FCPS WebsiteTeacher BlogsOstlundSociology TextbookPassword: jmsoc
55 Theoretical perspective: Read pages Sociological TheoryIn your notebookPut the fundamental aspects of the 3 theories into whatever organizational scheme that makes the most sense to you. Make sure you include important terms.JOURNAL TOPIC #1 (In notebook)Read pgs Sociology of Sports- Pick another topic and analyze that topic applying the 3 theoretical perspectives.
56 TheoryA general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work; and explanation of how two or more facts are related to one anotherA statement of how and why facts are relatedCorrectly predicts future eventsMakes the facts of social life comprehensible and understandable
57 ParadigmA conceptual model that serves as a cognitive map to organize experience so that it has meaning and is comprehensible to the observer.
58 Theoretical ParadigmA basic image of society that guides thinking and researchA model of society, or an orienting strategy guiding views of and questions about society
60 Major Sociological Theoretical Perspectives Functional AnalysisConflict TheorySymbolic-Interactionism
61 Functional AnalysisA theoretical framework in which society is viewed as a whole unit, composed of interrelated parts, each with a function that, when fulfilled, contributes to society’s equilibriumAlso known as functionalism and structural functionalism
62 Functional Analysis Focuses on Social Structure and Social Function Is macro-level orientationArgues that Social Order is based on Social ConsensusOriginated from the work of Spencer and Durkheim
63 Social ConsensusCondition in which most members of society agree on what is a “good” and cooperate to achieve it.
64 Types of FunctionManifest FunctionLatent FunctionDysfunction
65 Critical Evaluations of Functional Analysis Tends to be conservativeTends to dismiss changeOverlooks the negative
66 Structural-Functional Paradigm The basicsA macro-level orientation, concerned with broad patterns that shape society as a wholeViews society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stabilityKey elements:Social structure refers to any relatively stable patterns of social behavior found in social institutions.Social function refers to the consequences for the operation of society as a whole.
67 Who’s Who in the Structural-Functional Paradigm Auguste ComteImportance of social integration during times of rapid changeEmile DurkheimHelped establish sociology as a disciplineHerbert SpencerCompared society to the human bodyRobert K. MertonManifest functions are recognized and intended consequences.Latent functions are unrecognized and unintended consequences.Social dysfunctions are undesirable consequences.
68 Conflict TheoryA theoretical framework in which society is viewed as being composed of groups competing for scarce resources.68
69 Conflict Theory Focuses on Social Tension and Social Change Is macro level orientationArgues that Social Order is maintained by direct or indirect exercise of powerOriginated from the work of Karl Marx
70 Conflict Binds groups together as they pursue their own interests Focuses attention on social problemsLeads to beneficial changes that might have otherwise not have occurred
71 Critical Evaluation of the Social-Conflict Paradigm Fails to come to grips with orderly, stable, and less controversial aspects of societyOveremphasizes the negative
72 Social-Conflict Paradigm The basics:A macro-oriented paradigmViews society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and social changeKey elements:Society is structured in ways to benefit a few at the expense of the majority.Factors such as race, sex, class, and age are linked to social inequality.Dominant group vs. disadvantaged group relations
73 Who’s Who in the Social-Conflict Paradigm Karl MarxThe importance of social class in inequality and social conflictW.E.B. Du BoisRace as the major problem facing the United States in the 20th century
74 Feminism and the Gender-Conflict Approach A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and menClosely linked to feminism, the advocacy of social equality for women and menWomen important to the development of sociology: Harriet Martineau and Jane Addams
75 The Race-Conflict Approach A point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categoriesPeople of color important to the development of sociology: Ida Wells Barnett and W.E.B. Du Bois
76 Symbolic-Interactionism A theoretical perspective that focuses on how people use symbols to establish meaning, develop their views of the world, and communicate with one another.
77 InteractionismFocuses on details of everyday life and interaction between people, and on how meaning is assigned to human interactionIs micro level orientationArgues that society responds through symbolic interactionOriginated from the studies of Max Weber and George Herbert Mead
78 The interaction that takes place between people through symbols. Symbolic InteractionThe interaction that takes place between people through symbols.
79 Critical Evaluation of Symbolic-Interactionist Paradigm Neglects the larger social institutions and social processesNeglects powerful issues of stability and change
80 Who’s Who in the Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm Max WeberUnderstanding a setting from the people in itGeorge Herbert MeadHow we build personalities from social experienceErving GoffmanDramaturgical analysisGeorge Homans & Peter BlauSocial-exchange analysis
81 Critical Evaluation Structural-Functional Social-Conflict Too broad, ignores inequalities of social class, race & gender, focuses on stability at the expense of conflictSocial-ConflictToo broad, ignores how shared values and mutual interdependence unify society, pursues political goalsSymbolic-InteractionIgnores larger social structures, effects of culture, factors such as class, gender & race
83 Applying the Approaches: The Sociology of Sports The Functions of SportsA structural-functional approach directs our attention to the ways in which sports help society operateSports have functional and dysfunctional consequences
84 Sports and ConflictSocial-conflict analysis points out that games people play reflect their social standing.Sports have been oriented mostly toward males.Big league sports excluded people of color for decades.Sports in the United States are bound up with inequalities based on gender, race, and economic power.
85 Sports as InteractionFollowing the symbolic-interaction approach, sports are less a system than an ongoing process.All three theoretical approaches—structural-functional, social-conflict, and symbolic-interaction—provide different insights into sports. No one is more correct than the others.
86 Symbolic-Interaction Paradigm The basicsA micro-level orientation, a close-up focus on social interactions in specific situationsViews society as the product of everyday interactions of individualsKey elementsSociety is nothing more than the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another.Society is a complex, ever-changing mosaic of subjective meanings.
88 Sociological Theories On the left side of the notes you took on Sociological theories- develop some chart, picture, mnemonic device, or other depiction to help you distinguish between the theories.Share with the people in your group
89 Three Theoretical Perspectives Social NetworkingSchoolReligionGovernmentUrbanizationFuneralsFamilyWar