2CHAPTER 1: The Sociological Point of View Examining Social LifeSociology: Then and Now
3EXAMINING SOCIAL LIFESociology- Science that studies human society and social behavior.Social Interaction- How people relate to one another and influence each other’s behavior.Phenomenon- An observable fact or event.
4THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE Teaches us to look at social life in a scientific, systematic way.Sociological Imagination- Ability to see the connection between the larger world and our personal lives.Poverty, for example, often is the result of high unemployment
5SOCIOLOGY’S PLACE IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Social Sciences- Related disciplines that studies various aspects of human behavior.Anthropology- Comparative study of various aspects of past and present cultures
6SOCIOLOGY’S PLACE IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES Economics- Study of choices people make in an effort to satisfy their wants and needs.Political Science- Examination of the organization and operation of governments.History- Study of past events.HITLER’S RISE TO POWER HAS BEEN OF INTEREST TO ALL OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES
7SOCIOLOGY: THEN AND NOW The development of sociology as a distinct field of study began during the industrial revolution in the 17th and 18th centuries.The rapid explosion of the urban population produced a multitude of social problems.Individual liberties and rights become the focus of a wide variety of political movements.THE FRENCH REVOLUTIONTHE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
8THE EARLY YEARSSociology took root in the 19th century, primarily in France, Germany, and England.These nations had most strongly felt the effects of the Industrial Revolution.THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
9AUGUSTE COMTEFrench philosopher usually considered the founder of sociology because he was the first person to use the term to describe the study of society.Comte believed that sociologists should be concerned with two basic problems- Order and ChangeHe was concerned with finding solutions to the chaos created by the French Revolution.HE BELIEVED HIS NEW SCIENCE COULD GIVE STABILITY TO SCIENCE
10KARL MARXBelieved that the overall structure of society is heavily influenced by how the economy is organized.According to Marx, the ills of capitalism would not be solved until the workers overthrew those in power.Author of the Communist Manifesto.THE WRITINGS OF MARX LARGELY WERE A REACTION TO THE HARSH SOCIAL CONDITIONS PRODUCED BY THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
11HERBERT SPENCER Spencer was strongly influenced by Charles Darwin. Social Darwinism- “Survival of the Fittest”He believed that the fittest societies would survive over time, leading to a general upgrading of the world as a whole.SOCIAL DARWINISMSPENCER COMPARED SOCIETY TO A LIVING ORGANISM
12EMILE DURKHEIMFirst sociologist to systematically apply the methods of science to the study of society.Like Spencer, he saw society as a set of interdependent parts that maintain the system over time.Function- The positive consequence that an element of society has for the maintenance of the social system.
13MAX WEBERUnlike others, Weber was interested more in groups within society than the social whole.Verstehen- Empathetic understanding of the meanings others attach to their actions.Ideal Type- Description of the essential characteristics of some aspect of society.UNLIKE OTHER SOCIOLOGISTS OF HIS DAY, MAX WEBER THOUGHT IT WAS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE INDIVIDUAL
14CURRENT PERSPECTIVESTheory- Systematic explanation of the relationships among phenomena.Theoretical Perspective- General set of assumptions about the nature of phenomena.Three broad theoretical perspectives form the basis of modern sociology. Each presents a different image of society or focuses on different aspects of social life.
15FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE Functional Perspective- View society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system.Function- Positive consequence that an element of society has for the maintenance of the social system.Dysfunction- Negative consequence an element has for the stability of the social system.Function Example: Cooperation in the workplaceDysfunction Example: Crime
16FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE CONTINUED In addition to being either positive or negative, functions can be either manifest or latent.Manifest Function- Intended and recognized consequence of some element of society.Latent Function- Unintended and unrecognized consequence of an element of society.An automobile is to provide speedy transportation from one location to another.An automobile is used to gain social standing through the display of wealth.
17WORKERS OF THE WORLD UNITE CONFLICT PERSPECTIVEConflict Perspective- Focus on the factors in society that promote competition and change.Those who posses more power in society exercise control over those with less power.Competition over scarce resources or wealth and power are at the basis of social conflict.WORKERS OF THE WORLD UNITE
18INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVE Interactionist Perspective- Focus on how individuals interact with one another in society.Symbol- Anything that stands for something elseSymbolic Interaction- Interaction that takes place through the use of symbols.This perspective can be traced back to the work of Max Weber.The military salute, for example, is a symbol through which soldiers show their respect for authority.