Presentation on theme: "Chapter One Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter One Sociology: Perspective, Theory, and Method
2 The Sociological Perspective Sociology is the systematic study of human society.The study of all institutionsall cultures around the worldevery aspect of self in relationship with othersapplied sociology versus academic sociologythe need to think critically about social structures and social changePrivate problems and public issues- C. Wright Mills
3 The Sociological Perspective The sociological perspective helps us to see general social patterns in the behavior of particular individuals.It encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds — to see the strange in the familiar.
4 The Sociological Perspective Emile Durkheim ( )Social Forces are constantly at work, even in an intensely personal action such as suicide.Social Integration is the key.
5 Benefits of the Sociological Perspective: The sociological perspective helps us critically assess and challenge “common sense” ideas
6 Benefits of the Sociological Perspective: The sociological perspective helps us assess both opportunities and constraints in our lives.
7 Benefits of the Sociological Perspective: The sociological perspective empowers us to be active participants in our society.The sociological perspective helps us to live in a diverse world.
8 The Sociological Perspective Global Perspective: the study of the larger world and our society’s place in it.High-income countries(about 50 countries)Middle-income countries(about 80 countries)Low-income countries(about 60 countries)18% in high-income70% in middle-income12% in low-income
9 The Origins of Sociology the rise of a factory-based industrial economythe emergence of great cities in Europepolitical changes
10 The Origins of Sociology August Comte ( )Considered the Founder of Modern SociologyCoined the phrase: Sociology (1838)Described Sociology as having three stages:TheologicalMetaphysicalScientific
11 The Origins of Sociology August Comte ( )Favored positivism — a way of understanding based on scienceStrongly influenced the academic discipline of Sociology in the United States
12 The Origins of Sociology August Comte ( )The term sociology comes from:Latin – socius (friend or associate)Greek – logos (word)“words about human associations”
13 The Origins of Sociology Karl Marx ( )Saw striking inequalities in the new industrial society.Known for Marxist Sociology and the Social- Conflict Approach
14 The Origins of Sociology GENDER & RACE: Marginal VoicesHarriet Martineau ( )Jane Addams ( )W.E.B. Du Bois ( )
15 Sociological TheoryA theory is a statement of how and why specific facts are related.The goal of sociological theory is to explain social behavior in the real world.Theories are based on theoretical paradigms, sets of assumptions that guide thinking and research.
16 The Structural–Functional Paradigm The structural-functional paradigm sees society as a complex system whose parts work together.It asserts that our lives are guided by social structures.Herbert SpencerEmile DurkheimRobert Merton
17 The Structural–Functional Paradigm Each social structure has social functions.The influence of this paradigm has declined in recent decades.It focuses on stability, thereby ignoring inequalities of social class, race, and gender.Herbert SpencerEmile DurkheimRobert Merton
18 The Social–Conflict Paradigm The social-conflict paradigm sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change.Critical evaluation: This paradigm has developed rapidly in recent years.Karl MarxW.E.B. Du Bois
19 The Social–Conflict Paradigm It has several weaknesses:It ignores social unity.Like the structural-functional paradigm, it envisions society in terms of broad abstractions. It is political.Karl MarxW.E.B. Du Bois
20 The Symbolic–Interaction Paradigm The symbolic-interaction paradigm sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.Max WeberGeorge Herbert Mead
21 The Symbolic–Interaction Paradigm Symbolic-interactionism has a micro-level orientation.It focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings. Ignores class, gender, and raceMax WeberGeorge Herbert Mead
22 The Basics of Sociological Investigation Sociological investigation starts with two simple requirements:(1) Use the sociological perspective.(2) Be curious and ask questions.Science – a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation.Scientific sociology – the study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior.
23 Scientific Sociology: Basic Elements and Limitations A concept – a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form.A variable – a concept whose value changes from case to case.Measurement – a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case.Almost any variable can be measured in more than one way.
24 Useful MeasurementsFor a measurement to be useful, it must be reliable and valid.Reliability – consistency in measurement.The procedure must yield the same result if repeated.does a person taking several math achievement tests score equivalently on each test?
25 Useful MeasurementsValidity – precision in measuring exactly what one intends to measure.Valid measurement means hitting the bull’s-eye of the target.are the math tests truly measuring what they purport to measure--skills and knowledge--or are they possibly measuring some other quality like ability to follow directions?
26 Relationships Among Variables The scientific ideal is cause and effect – change in one variable causes change in another.The variable that causes the change is the independent variable.The variable that changes is the dependent variable.to conclude that a cause and effect relationship existsa correlation exists between the variables,the independent variable precedes the dependent variable in time, andno evidence exists that a third variable is responsible for a spurious correlation between the two variables.
27 Relationships Among Variables Correlation – a relationship by which two variables change together.A spurious correlation is a false relationship between two or more variable caused by another. (Ice cream sales and drowning accidents)
28 The Ideal of Objectivity Science demands that researchers strive for objectivity – a state of personal neutrality in conducting research.Researchers carefully hold to scientific procedures while reining in their own attitudes and beliefs.It is an ideal rather than a reality.Max Weber: Value-Free Research Max Weber argued that research may be value-relevant, or of personal interest to the researcher, but the actual process of doing research must be value-free.Weber: We mist be dedicated to finding the truth as is is rather than as we think it should be
29 Interpretive Sociology Max Weber, who pioneered this framework, argued that the focus of sociology is interpretation.The interpretive sociologist’s job is not just to observe what people do but to share in their world of meaning.
30 Critical SociologyThe study of society that focuses on the need for desirable social change.Karl Marx rejected the idea that society exists as a “natural” system with a fixed order
31 Gender and ResearchAndrocentricity, approaching an issue from the male perspectiveOvergeneralizing, using data drawn from studying only one sex
32 Gender and ResearchGender blindness, not considering the variable of gender at all (men living with wives, wives living alone)Double standards, not judging men and women differently (Man, head of the household.)Interference, a subject reacts to the sex of the researcher (That is not a teacher, that is a woman.)
33 Research MethodsA research method is a systematic plan for doing researchAn experiment is a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
34 Research MethodsA survey is a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
35 Research MethodsParticipant observation is a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in routine activities
36 Research MethodsExisting sources, is a research method in which available data is analyzed.
37 Ten steps in sociological investigation What is your topic?What have others already learned?
38 Ten steps in sociological investigation What, exactly, are your questions?What will you need to carry out research
39 Ten steps in sociological investigation Are there ethical concerns?What method will you use?
40 Ten steps in sociological investigation How will you record the data?What do the data tell you?
41 Ten steps in sociological investigation What are your conclusions?How can you share what you've learned?