Presentation on theme: "Virus Review! What are the two main parts that make up the structure of a virus? What is the difference between an active and a hidden virus? What is the."— Presentation transcript:
1 Virus Review!What are the two main parts that make up the structure of a virus?What is the difference between an active and a hidden virus?What is the term used to describe the chemical that prevents viruses? How does it actually work?The influenza of 1918 is known as, “one of the worst pandemics the world has ever known.” What do think a pandemic is?
3 Two Domains/ Two Kingdoms DOMAINS: 1. Archaea Bacteria 3. EukaryaKINGDOM ArchaebacteriaLive in extreme enviromentsWater as hot as 110°CAcidic as lemon juiceIntestines, mud, and sewageProduce foul odorsKINGDOM EubacteriaDO NOT live in extreme enviromentsLive everywhere elseCoat your skinSwarm in your noseMost are either useful or harmless to you
4 BacteriaHISTORY: Anton van Leeuwenhoek found bacteria first in teeth scrapingsSTRUCTURE:single celled prokaryotesDNA floats in cytoplasm (no nucleus)Ribosomes; no other organelles
6 Phylum Cocci Streptococcus aureus Causes Strep Throat Staphylococcus aureusCauses staph infectionsNeisseria gonorrhoeaeCauses a sexually transmitted disease called gonorrhea
7 Phylum Bacilli Escherechi coli Causes food poisoning Bacillus anthracisCauses anthrax, can grow in aerobic OR anaerobic environmentsBacillus thuringiensisA bacterium found in soil that keeps away insects.
8 Phylum Spirilla Borrelia burgdorferi Found in intestines of ticks, carries Lyme diseaseTreponema pallidumCauses the sexually transmitted disease, syphilis.Spirillum minus found in rodents causes rat bite fever in those people who come in contact with infected rats
9 How do Bacterial Cells Move? Flagellum – a long whip-like structure that moves the cell like a propeller.May also have tiny protein fibers called pili.Most bacteria without flagellum cannot move on their own and must rely on other things to move them.
10 Two Types of Reproduction Sexual Reproduction – involves two parents who combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents.Conjugation – one bacterium transfers some of its genetic material to another bacterium through a thin, threadlike bridge that joins the two cellsThe term sexual reproduction is loosely used here. There is an exchange of DNA, however no NEW cells are created.A pilus bridges from one cell to the other
11 Two Types of Reproduction Asexual Reproduction – reproductive process that only involves one parent and produces offspring that areBinary Fission – process by which one cell divides to form two identical cells. A form of asexual reproduction.identical to the parent.
12 Stages of Bacterial Growth LAG PHASE: Growth is slow at first, while the microbes acclimate to the food and nutrients in their new habitat.LOG PHASE: Once used to the environment, they start multiplying exponentially, doubling in number every few minutes.STATIONARY PHASE: As more and more microbes are competing for dwindling food and nutrients, booming growth stops and the number of bacteria stabilizes.DEATH PHASE: Toxic waste products build up, food is depleted and the microbes begin to die.Lag
13 Getting Food Some bacteria are autotrophic and make their own food. They can use the sun’s energy the same way plants do (photosynthesis), or they can use chemical substances in their environment to make food (chemosynthesis).Other bacteria are heterotrophic. They get their food by eating autotrophs or other heterotrophs.Getting Food
14 RespirationLike many other organisms most bacteria need oxygen to break down their food to get energy. (AEROBES)A few kinds of bacteria do not need oxygen, and it is actually like poison to them. (ANAEROBES)An anaerobic bacteria found in soil
15 Is All Bacteria Bad?Bacteria is not all bad. There are several ways in which Bacteria is helpful.1. Involved in fuel and food production2. Environmental recycling and cleanup.3. Decomposers - break down large chemicals in dead organisms into small chemicals
16 Illness and Health Some bacteria can make you sick. Bacterial diseases can be passed in many ways.Direct contact, like touching, hugging, or kissing.Indirect contact, such as inhaling drops of moisture, or sharing food and drink.Who has a cell phone?
17 Treatment?Bacterial diseases are treated with antibiotics, such as penicillin, and amoxicillin.A chemical that can kill bacteria without harming a person’s own cells.You also have bacteria in you digestive system to help break down food.