Presentation on theme: "Taking a Closer Look at Kingdom Eubacteria, Archaea and Viruses"— Presentation transcript:
1 Taking a Closer Look at Kingdom Eubacteria, Archaea and Viruses Objectives:1. Compare and contrast Eubacteria, Archaea and Viruses2. Explain why viruses are not part of any of the 6 kingdoms3. Discuss some benefits and negatives of bacteria
2 Microscopic Organisms Microscopic bacteria and viruses are the cause of many diseases.Respiratory infectionsFluPlagueThey also play an important role in the ecosystem.Recycling nutrients (convert nitrogen into a form plants can use)Production (Cheese, Yogurt, Vitamin K and B12)Sewage TreatmentDigestionDecomposerProduce antibiotics (to compete with other bacteria)
3 ProkaryotesDomain Eubacteria and Archaea are single- celled and lack membrane bound organelles.Extremely smallDominate forms of life because they live in every habitatInside and on other organisms (100 trillion+ on your body!)In water and soil (even deep within the Earth)In boiling hot springsIn acid and even on and in ice!!! (Totally extreme)
5 Cell ShapesBoth Archaea and Eubacteria can be classified based on their shape..Bacillus (rod shaped)E.coliCoccus (round)StreptococcusSpirillum (spiral)Spirillum minus
6 EubacteriaConsist of a cell wall ( composed of __________________which makes the cell strong) and a plasma membrane surrounding the cytoplasm.Chromosome is ___________________________.Also may contain _______________(small loop of extra DNA with a few genes)Contains ribosomes which make ___________________Have flagellum for __________________________________help cell attach to surfaces
7 Metabolism Autotrophic bacteria: Make their own food Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae, blue-green bacteriaUse energy from the sun (photosynthesis)Heterotrophic bacteria: Get nutrients from other organismsHeterotrophic bacteria include parasitic typesE.Coli - The products of their metabolism may be toxic to animals
8 Reproduction - Asexually Reproduce asexually by binary fission.Similar to mitosisDNA replicatesCell elongatesCell splits apartAlso may be subject to mutations.Bacteria reproduce rapidly so mutations occur more frequentlyBacteria can gain new DNA through infection by a virus or conjugation.
9 Conjugation: Form of sexual-like reproduction (two cells join and exchange genetic info.)
10 Archaea Similar to bacteria in some ways… Have a cell wall, but lack peptidoglycanDifferent genetic informationCan occupy much more extreme environments (acidic, boiling)
11 Subgroups Methanogens: Live in low oxygen environments - Swamps, Sewage lagoons, Digestive tracts- Convert methane gas into energyHalophiles: Salt lovers that live in environments that are very salty- Dead Sea, Foods preserved by salt- Convert food molecules into energyExtreme Thermophiles: Live in very hot environments ( ºC is optimal for growth)Psychrophiles: Live in Antarctic and Artic environments(-10 to – 20 ºC is optimal for growth)
12 VirusesNon–living infectious particles that pass from cell to cell and organism to organism.They infect a cell and take over control forcing or tricking the cell into making copies of the virus.
13 Your TurnComplete the hand out on ‘Comparing and Contrasting the structure and function of Prokaryotes, Eukaryotes and Viruses.
14 PlenaryCompare and contrast Archaea and Eubacteria (how are they similar and different)How do bacteria reproduce?How are bacteria classified?How are bacteria harmful/helpful?Why are viruses considered to be non-living?Compare and contrast virus and bacteria reproduction.
15 Additional Questions H/W Page 344 #1, 2, 4, 6, 7 Make a table to summarize the benefits of bacteria and the harmful effects of bacteria