4Archaebacteria Archaebacteria are prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are: single celled without a nucleus organisms and are the smallest and simplest forms of life.Archaebacteria are found in anaerobic and extreme conditions (high salt, high temperature, and/or very acidic.)These are believed to be the conditions on the early Earth. Earth’s early atmosphere did not contain oxygen, therefore the earliest organisms were anaerobic.Anaerobic can live in the absence of oxygen
5Halobacterium salinarum Lives in extremely salty places.Picture on the right shows a salty pond in the Arabian desert that has turned red due to the presence of Halobacterium salinarum
6Thermus thermophilusThermus thermophilus is an archaean which can withstand very high temperatures.Often lives in hot springs like those found at Yellowstone.
8Eubacteria Eubacteria are also prokaryotes. Eubacteria is made up of more traditional bacteria and is a larger kingdom than archaebacteria.They are found in almost all habitats.Eubacteria are unicellular and have no membrane-bound organelles.ie: no nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, ER, or Golgi apparatus.
9Archaebacteria and Eubacteria All BacteriaArchaebacteriaandEubacteria
103 Shapes of Bacteria Cocci spherical Bacilli rod shaped Spirilla spiral shaped
11Cilia and Flagella Cilia and Flagella allow a bacterium to move. Cilia are hair-like and work like oars in a boat. Repetitive beating allows the cell to move.If a bacteria cannot move cilia can also move water across the cell’s surface.Flagella are whip-like and wave back and forth to move the cell.
13Nutrition Most bacteria are heterotrophs. Heterotrophs feed on other organisms.These include parasites which live and feed off of a living hostand decomposers that feed on dead and decaying organismsSome bacteria are autotrophs.Autotrophs use chemicals or photosynthesis as a form of energy.
14Bacteria reproduce either asexually or sexually. ReproductionBacteria reproduce either asexually or sexually.Asexual ReproductionSexual ReproductionProkaryotes reproduce by splitting in two in a process called binary fission.The DNA is copied and the cell divides into two identical cells.Combines genes from two different individuals.Prokaryotes that do not technically reproduce sexually can still mix genes with one another.
15Mixing GenesCells that do not reproduce sexually can still mix genes through three processes:Conjugation- Two cells briefly join and one cell donates DNA to the other.Transformation – Bacteria pick up pieces of DNA from the environment.Transduction- viruses can transfer pieces of DNA from one cell to anotherThese processes add genetic diversity to bacteria.Mutation is also a large source of genetic diversity in bacteria.
16Bacteria and Disease Bacteria cause disease in two ways: By damaging tissues and breaking down cells for foodBy releasing toxins that interfere with the normal bodily functions of the host.
17Treating Bacterial Disease To treat diseases caused by bacteria we use:Vaccines small doses of live bacteria, killed bacteria, or parts of bacterial cells which cause an immune response.Vaccines allow your body to learn how to kill a bacteria without getting sick.Antibiotics drugs that interfere with the growth of bacteria