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Dr. MaLinda Hill Advanced English C1-A Designing Essays, Research Papers, Business Reports and Reflective Statements.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. MaLinda Hill Advanced English C1-A Designing Essays, Research Papers, Business Reports and Reflective Statements."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. MaLinda Hill Advanced English C1-A Designing Essays, Research Papers, Business Reports and Reflective Statements

2 What are the Differences among Essays, Research Paper, Business Report and Reflective Statements? Essays, research papers, business reports and reflective statements differ in their: Purpose: what are they for Structure: order of information Style: formal or informal Voice: 1 st, 2 nd vs. 3 rd person Layout: formal or informal

3 What is an Essay? An academic piece of writing about a specific subject Is written for a lecturer, professor or tutor responding to a particular question Is not a empirical piece of research

4 What is an Essay? Presents an argument of ideas, leading the reader from the title at the beginning to a formal conclusion Is normally written in the third person, but can also refer to first or second person

5 Why Write an Essay? To explore a topic in detail To develop and organize your own ideas and through writing To develop your writing skills To express your views about a topic To allow lecturers to assess your progress

6 Analyze the Essay Question Look for the explicit demands i.e. what the question is obviously about Identify the TOPIC: what is the research question about Identify the FOCUS: the specific aspect of the topic one will need to concentrate on Identify the INSTRUCTIONS: what the lecturer wishes one to do

7 What Are the Specific Issues That Must Be Covered? An essay question may ask: Why noise must be controlled With this question, one should analyze the definition of noise Describe principle methods of controlling noise Examine the advantages/disadvantages of these methods

8 Common Instruction Words Analyze: Break the question/issue into its component parts and explain how they relate to one another Compare: Concentrates on the similarities Contrast: Concentrates on the differences

9 Common Instruction Words Describe: Gives the main characteristics of features or outline the main events Evaluate: Weighs up the importance, success or value of something using evidence

10 Common Instruction Words Examine: Gives a detailed account of something, question and exploring relevant issues Explain: Makes clear why something happens or why something is the way it is Review: Examines how a topic has been studied and comment on the value and limitations of its treatment

11 Common Instruction Words State: Write the main points relating to the subject To what Extent: Considers how far something is true, or contributes to a final outcome Summarize: Draws out the main points only, omitting details or examples

12 Look at Implicit Demands Ask yourself: Why has the question been asked? What are you suppose to demonstrate: Specific knowledge Personal experience Understanding of theory and practice Demonstrate good communication skills

13 Before Starting Ask Yourself: What particular sources do I need to use: handouts, key texts, readings, certain authors or class notes What key points did the lecturer highlight or explore in class? What is the TUTOR‘S VIEW on this issue? What are MY VIEWS on this issue?

14 How Do I Start? Write an essay plan Make a list or brainstorm for ideas Produce a mind map Talk to lecturers, fellow students and tutors Start Writing

15 Structure of an Essay Title page Introduction Body Conclusion Works Cited (Bibliography)

16 Title Page The title page has the following information: Title of paper Student‘s name and identity number Lecturer‘s name Date paper is due

17 Introduction The introduction explains what the essay is going to do It should be about 1/10 of the essay It should explain how you interpret the question

18 Introduction, cont. Identify issues that you are going to explore Give a brief outline of how you will deal with each issue, and in which order

19 Body Develop your argument and line of reasoning. The first sentence introduces the main idea to the paragraph. Supporting sentences develop the topic of the paragraph.

20 Body, cont. A concluding sentence ends the paragraph or introduces the next paragraph. Sentences links ideas across paragraphs so your argument flows

21 Body, cont. Body/main argument/discussion which is to include: Example A: example of application evidence for evidence against why not convincing Alternative Theory B: same as above

22 Use Linking Words to Link Paragraphs and ideas The words: also, in addition and more over show that you are continuing in the same direction The words: whereas, nevertheless, however and on the other hand show that you are changing directions The words: first, second and finally state the order of your argument.

23 Conclusion The conclusion should not be more than 1/10 of the essay Summarize your argument and the main themes, using original wording State your general conclusions (your opinion) and/or give recommendations.

24 Conclusion, cont. Stress the importance why the conclusions are important or significant Final sentence should look toward future developments. Don‘t add any new ideas.

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