Dr. Alireza Isfandyari-Moghaddam Department of Library and Information Studies, Islamic Azad University, Hamedan Branch E-mail: email@example.com@gmail.com Home page: www.isfandyari-moghaddam.comwww.isfandyari-moghaddam.com Writing and publishing in ISI journals Workshop presented for Iranian Library and Information Science Association, Khorasan Branch, Mashhad (http://ilisa-khorasan.ir/)...2011.10.8http://ilisa-khorasan.ir/
30 years in science http://www.science-metrix.com/30years-Paper.pdf
Two important rules 1.There is no single best way. 2.Writing structure of scientific article varies from paper to paper.
Beginning: Reading the literature thoroughly and broadly 1.Define and understand the problem. Even if suggested by your mentor, the project is now your responsibility. 2.Find and read the literature. The problem may have been solved already! 3.Search in…????????? 4.Follow up references in the literatures you find. 5.Learn more about the area than you “need” to know. 6.If desirable, redefine the project based on the literature.
Identify type of papers Research paper. This category covers papers which report on any type of research undertaken by the author (s). The research may involve the construction or testing of a model or framework, action research, testing of data, market research or surveys, empirical, scientific or clinical research. Viewpoint. Any paper, where content is dependent on the author's opinion and interpretation, should be included in this category. Technical paper. Describes and evaluates technical products, processes or services.
Type of papers- cont. Conceptual paper. These papers will not be based on research but will develop hypotheses. The papers are likely to be discursive and will cover philosophical discussions and comparative studies of others' work and thinking. Case study. Case studies describe actual interventions or experiences within organizations. They may well be subjective and will not generally report on research. A description of a legal case or a hypothetical case study used as a teaching exercise would also fit into this category. Literature review. It is expected that all types of paper cite any relevant literature so this category should only be used if the main purpose of the paper is to annotate and/or critique the literature in a particular subject area. It may be a selective bibliography providing advice on information sources or it may be comprehensive in that the paper's aim is to cover the main contributors to the development of a topic and explore their different views.
Type of papers- cont. General review. This category covers those papers which provide an overview or historical examination of some concept, technique or phenomenon. The papers are likely to be more descriptive or instructional. …
Abstract An abstract is a succinct summary of a longer piece of work, usually academic in nature, which is published in isolation from the main text and should therefore stand on its own and be understandable without reference to the longer piece. It should report the latter's essential facts, and should not exaggerate or contain material that is not there.
Abstract- cont. Its purpose is to act as a reference tool (for example in a library abstracting service), enabling the reader to decide whether or not to read the full text. Two common reasons for writing an abstract are: 1.to summarize a longer piece of work published as a journal article, thesis, book or web page, an existing article for the purposes of a journal, 2.or to submit an application to write a paper for a conference.
Introduction The function of an introduction is to present the question being asked and place it in the context of what is already known about the topic. Background information that suggests why the topic is of interest and related findings by other scientists are usually mentioned here. In fact, the nature and scope of the problem is described here; why the work was important is explained here;
Literature review-cont. “... a literature review uses as its database reports of primary or original scholarship, and does not report new primary scholarship itself. The primary reports used in the literature may be verbal, but in the vast majority of cases reports are written documents. The types of scholarship may be empirical, theoretical, critical/analytic, or methodological in nature. Second a literature review seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate, clarify and/or integrate the content of primary reports”.
Literature review-cont. Analyze the findings What themes emerge and what conclusions can be drawn? What are the major similarities and differences between the various writers? Are there any significant questions which emerge and which could form a basis for further investigation?
Literature review-cont. How to organize a literature review? Introduction: define the topic, together with your reason for selecting the topic. Body: this is where you discuss your sources. Here are some ways in which you could organize your discussion: 1.Chronologically 2.Thematically 3.Methodologically Conclusion: summarize the major contributions, evaluating the current position, and pointing out flaws in methodology, gaps in the research, contradictions, and areas for further study.
Conclusions and recommendations Do: summarize and conclude, restating the main argument, and presenting key conclusions and recommendations state how your findings/new framework, etc. apply to the world of practice state what are the implications for further research say to what extent your original questions have been answered state the limitations of your research.
Conclusions and recommendations- cont. Don't: start a new topic or introduce new material repeat the introduction make obvious statements contradict anything you said earlier.