3 SPONCH S= Sulfur P= Phosphorus O= Oxygen N= Nitrogen C= Carbon 6 most important elements to lifeS= SulfurP= PhosphorusO= OxygenN= NitrogenC= CarbonH= Hydrogen
4 Periodic Table of Elements Organized table of elements discovered so farOrganized according to atomic structure and chemical characteristics
5 CARBON – the building block of life! DRAW CarbonCarbon is able to bond with up to four other elements or form double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms. Because of the unique bonding properties, there are millions of different organic chemicals. Each one has unique properties (functions).
6 CarbonInorganic compounds are substances that don’t have carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds, like minerals, metals, and salts.Organic compounds contain CARBON atoms and are made by living things. Most matter in your body that is not water is made of organic compounds.
7 MACROMOLECULES- LARGE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 4 Main Groups of Macromolecules:CarbohydratesLipidsProteinsNucleic Acids
8 CARBOHYDRATES Provide ENERGY source for cells (1 gram = 4 Calories) Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in ratio of 1:2:1Monomer is monosaccharide (glucose -C6H12O6, fructose)Animals store glucose in form of polysaccharide glycogen and plants store glucose in form of starchFound in fruits, vegetables, grains
9 Two linked = disaccharides Examples = sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose)
13 TYPES OF LIPIDSTRIGLYCERIDESPHOSPHOLIPIDSWAXESSTEROIDS
14 POLYMER FUNCTIONSTRIGLYCERIDES – insulation and energy storage (1 gram = 9 Calories)PHOSPHOLIPIDS – main component in cell membranes
15 WAXES – ear wax, beeswax, lanolin, protection from water loss in plants STEROIDS - (Examples: cholesterol, Vitamin D, estrogen, cortisone, chlorophyll) stimulate bone and muscle growth, development of reproductive organs, sexual function, anti-inflammatory, essential in brain function, plant pigments
16 HARDENING OF THE ARTERIES Adaquate amounts of lipids are essential to a balanced diet.Eating too many foods with fats, such as cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, can cause a build up in arteriesWhat other factors contribute to arteriosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries)?
17 PROTEINS Monomers = amino acids Peptide = short chain of amino acids Polypeptide = long chain of amino acidsHumans must have 20 different amino acids, but can produce only 10; others must be from food we eatStructure is very important – pH and temperature can affect shapeFood sources high in protein include legumes, eggs, milk, fish, poultry, and meat (1 gram = 4 Calories)
18 FUNCTIONS of PROTEINSStructural (bones, ligaments, skin)– collagen, protein fibersDefense against infection- antibodiesHormones – insulin, prolactinTransport – hemoglobin (carries oxygen)Histones – “spools” around which DNA windsENZYMES!!! – speed up reactions in body, help break down molecules
20 Enzymes (special type of protein) Usually end in “-ase” (lipase,catalase)Act as catalysts (speed up reactions)Lower activation energy (amt of energy needed for a chemical rxn to occur)3D shape of enzyme is very important!Factors that can affect the rate of a reatction:pH leveltemperatureenzyme concentration (amt of enzyme present)substrate concentration (amt of substance being acted on by enzyme)
21 pH Scale indicates the concentrion of H+ ions in water Section 2-2Oven cleanerAcids have higher concentration of H+, bases have higher concentration of OH-The higher the pH, the more BASIC the solution. The lower the pH, the more ACIDIC the solution.BleachAmmonia solutionIncreasingly BasicSoapSea waterHuman bloodNeutralPure waterMilkNormalrainfallAcid rainIncreasingly AcidicTomatojuiceLemon juiceStomach acid
22 NUCLEIC ACIDSMonomer – nucleotide (a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate group)DNA – found in nucleus of plant and animal cells, double-stranded; contains information, determines proteins made (organisms characteristics), directs cell activitiesRNA – single-stranded; stores, transfers info from DNA to make proteins, can act as enzymesBoth made of nucleotides (thousands of linked monomers)Found in all cells