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Presentation on theme: "UNIT 4 CHEMISTRY OF LIFE."— Presentation transcript:



3 SPONCH S= Sulfur P= Phosphorus O= Oxygen N= Nitrogen C= Carbon
6 most important elements to life S= Sulfur P= Phosphorus O= Oxygen N= Nitrogen C= Carbon H= Hydrogen

4 Periodic Table of Elements
Organized table of elements discovered so far Organized according to atomic structure and chemical characteristics

5 CARBON – the building block of life!
DRAW Carbon Carbon is able to bond with up to four other elements or form double and triple bonds with other carbon atoms. Because of the unique bonding properties, there are millions of different organic chemicals. Each one has unique properties (functions).

6 Carbon Inorganic compounds are substances that don’t have carbon-hydrogen (C-H) bonds, like minerals, metals, and salts. Organic compounds contain CARBON atoms and are made by living things. Most matter in your body that is not water is made of organic compounds.

4 Main Groups of Macromolecules: Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

8 CARBOHYDRATES Provide ENERGY source for cells (1 gram = 4 Calories)
Made of Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in ratio of 1:2:1 Monomer is monosaccharide (glucose -C6H12O6, fructose) Animals store glucose in form of polysaccharide glycogen and plants store glucose in form of starch Found in fruits, vegetables, grains

9 Two linked = disaccharides
Examples = sucrose (glucose and fructose) and lactose (glucose and galactose)

10 Polymer = polysaccharides
Examples = glycogen (animals) starch (plants)

11 Cellulose (fiber)– polysaccharide that provides structural support for plants, humans cannot digest for nutrients; aids in digestion

12 LIPIDS MONOMERS = fatty acids
Saturated-animal fats, butter, lard, grease Unsaturated-most plant oils, olive oil, fish oils


14 POLYMER FUNCTIONS TRIGLYCERIDES – insulation and energy storage (1 gram = 9 Calories) PHOSPHOLIPIDS – main component in cell membranes

15 WAXES – ear wax, beeswax, lanolin, protection from water loss in plants STEROIDS - (Examples: cholesterol, Vitamin D, estrogen, cortisone, chlorophyll) stimulate bone and muscle growth, development of reproductive organs, sexual function, anti-inflammatory, essential in brain function, plant pigments

Adaquate amounts of lipids are essential to a balanced diet. Eating too many foods with fats, such as cholesterol and saturated fatty acids, can cause a build up in arteries What other factors contribute to arteriosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of the arteries)?

17 PROTEINS Monomers = amino acids Peptide = short chain of amino acids
Polypeptide = long chain of amino acids Humans must have 20 different amino acids, but can produce only 10; others must be from food we eat Structure is very important – pH and temperature can affect shape Food sources high in protein include legumes, eggs, milk, fish, poultry, and meat (1 gram = 4 Calories)

18 FUNCTIONS of PROTEINS Structural (bones, ligaments, skin)– collagen, protein fibers Defense against infection- antibodies Hormones – insulin, prolactin Transport – hemoglobin (carries oxygen) Histones – “spools” around which DNA winds ENZYMES!!! – speed up reactions in body, help break down molecules

19 Enzyme Lock and Key Model

20 Enzymes (special type of protein)
Usually end in “-ase” (lipase,catalase) Act as catalysts (speed up reactions) Lower activation energy (amt of energy needed for a chemical rxn to occur) 3D shape of enzyme is very important! Factors that can affect the rate of a reatction: pH level temperature enzyme concentration (amt of enzyme present) substrate concentration (amt of substance being acted on by enzyme)

21 pH Scale indicates the concentrion of H+ ions in water
Section 2-2 Oven cleaner Acids have higher concentration of H+, bases have higher concentration of OH- The higher the pH, the more BASIC the solution. The lower the pH, the more ACIDIC the solution. Bleach Ammonia solution Increasingly Basic Soap Sea water Human blood Neutral Pure water Milk Normal rainfall Acid rain Increasingly Acidic Tomato juice Lemon juice Stomach acid

22 NUCLEIC ACIDS Monomer – nucleotide (a sugar, nitrogen base, and phosphate group) DNA – found in nucleus of plant and animal cells, double-stranded; contains information, determines proteins made (organisms characteristics), directs cell activities RNA – single-stranded; stores, transfers info from DNA to make proteins, can act as enzymes Both made of nucleotides (thousands of linked monomers) Found in all cells


24 Concept Map Section 2-3 include that consist of that consist of
which contain which contain which contain which contain

25 Concept Map Carbon Compounds (sugars) Carbohydrates Lipids
Section 2-3 Carbon Compounds include Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins that consist of that consist of that consist of that consist of Monosaccharides (sugars) Fatty acids Nucleotides Amino Acids which include which include which include which include Glucose cellulose Butter, oil testosterone DNA RNA Collagen Hemoglobin enzymes

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