2 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION… We will be repeating these ALL year! Yesterday: Atoms Molecules Macromolecules… Today we will dig into the four macromolecules that are essential for life to exist.
3 What are the 4 biomolecules? TODAYTOMORROWCarbohydratesLipidsNucleic AcidsProteinsWE TYPICALLY GET BIOMOLECULES FROM FOOD…THIS IS WHY WE MUST EAT IN THE FIRST PLACE!THE BIOMOLECULES SERVE TO KEEP ORGANISMS ALIVE.
4 We get 4 kilocalories per gram #1: CARBOHYDRATESARE SUGARS!We get 4 kilocalories per gramof carb that we eat!
5 What are Carbohydrates? Most common organic moleculeFunction: Primary energy source our body needsElements present: C, H, O (1:2:1 ratio)Monomer (building block): Monosaccharides (Glucose is most common)Polymer: Polysaccharides (starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin)Examples: Chocolate, Bread, Pasta, Fruits, Vegetables (ALL FROM PLANTS!!!)IMPORTANT!
6 Sugars that make up Carbs Single sugar: monosaccharideEx: glucose , fructose (in fruits)2 monosaccharides: disaccharideEx: maltose, sucrose3+ monosaccharides: polysaccharideEx: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and ChitinI am a polysaccharide!
7 Types of polysaccharides Starch:Used for energy storage in plantsPotatoes, pasta and rice are starchesThey provide a quick form of energy for the bodyGlycogen:Used for energy storage in animalsI am formed in the Liver!
8 More Polysaccharides Cellulose: Chitin: Provides structural support in plants (found in the cell wall)Chitin:Found in exoskeletens of arthropods (insects, spiders)Found in cell wall of some fungiGIVES US FIBER!!!
9 Structure of Carbohydrates Remember: Elements are C, H, and OPrimarily in a Ring shape (but not always)
10 Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!
11 #2: LIPIDSARE FATSWe get 9 kcals per gramOf fat that we consume.
12 LipidsFunction: Store energy, Insulates your body, and make up the cell membrane!Elements: C-H-OMonomer (Building blocks): glycerol & 3 fatty acidsPolymer: Phospholipids, triglyceridesExample: Steroids, cholesterol, fats, Oils, Nuts, Waxes, and make up part of the cell membrane!
13 LipidsLipids are Hydrophobic (water fearing) and do not dissolve in water!Lipids can be:Saturated: The bonds between all the carbons are single bonds.Solid at room temperatureMainly animal fats (bacon grease, lard)Unsaturated: There is at least one double or triple bond between carbons present.Liquid at room temperatureMainly plant based fats (olive oil, peanut oil) as well as oily fish (Tuna, Sardines)Important!
18 #3: PROTEINS BUILD US We get 4 kcals per gram Of protein that we consume.
19 Proteins Function of proteins Transport molecules in and out of the cellControl the speed of chemical reactionsUsed for growth and repairProteins make up the structure of living things…Hair, nails, skin, bones, muscle, etc are all built by protein!
20 NITROGEN IS PRESENT, NOW! ProteinsNITROGEN IS PRESENT, NOW!Elements: C-H-O-NMonomer (Building Block): amino acids (20 different ones!)Polymer: proteins (tons)Examples of proteins: hemoglobin in red blood cells, albumin in eggs, enzymes that control reactions in the body, and antibodiesFound in: fish, eggs, meat
21 Protein Structure Remember: Elements are C, H, O, and N “R” groups represent one of the 20 Amino Acids! (so, each amino acid has something different in that spot)
22 Why are amino acids important? When groups of amino acids are joined together a protein is formedThere are 20 kinds of amino acidsThey consist of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group NH2Peptide bonds form between amino acids(polypeptide = many peptide bonds = protein!)
23 Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!
24 #4: NUCLEIC ACIDSThese biomolecules are notnecessarily from food
25 Nucleic acids Function: Provide our genetic information Holds the instructions to make proteins.Elements: C-H-O-N-PMonomer : nucleotidesA nucleotide is made up of:SugarPhosphateNitrogen Base: A, T, G, C, or UPolymer: DNA, RNA and ATPEnergy carrierGenetic code!Recipe for proteins