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BIOMOLECULES. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION… We will be repeating these ALL year! Yesterday: Atoms  Molecules  Macromolecules… Today we will dig into the four.

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Presentation on theme: "BIOMOLECULES. LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION… We will be repeating these ALL year! Yesterday: Atoms  Molecules  Macromolecules… Today we will dig into the four."— Presentation transcript:

1 BIOMOLECULES

2 LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION… We will be repeating these ALL year! Yesterday: Atoms  Molecules  Macromolecules… Today we will dig into the four macromolecules that are essential for life to exist.

3 What are the 4 biomolecules? Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic Acids Proteins TODAY TOMORROW W E TYPICALLY GET BIOMOLECULES FROM FOOD… THIS IS WHY WE MUST EAT IN THE FIRST PLACE! THE BIOMOLECULES SERVE TO KEEP ORGANISMS ALIVE.

4 #1: CARBOHYDRATES ARE SUGARS! We get 4 kilocalories per gram of carb that we eat!

5 What are Carbohydrates? Most common organic molecule Function: Primary energy source our body needs Elements present: C, H, O (1:2:1 ratio) Monomer (building block): Monosaccharides (Glucose is most common) Polymer: Polysaccharides (starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin) Examples: Chocolate, Bread, Pasta, Fruits, Vegetables (ALL FROM PLANTS!!!) IMPORTANT!

6 Sugars that make up Carbs Single sugar: monosaccharide Ex: glucose, fructose (in fruits) 2 monosaccharides: disaccharide Ex: maltose, sucrose 3+ monosaccharides: polysaccharide Ex: Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, and Chitin I am a polysaccharide!

7 Types of polysaccharides Starch: Used for energy storage in plants Potatoes, pasta and rice are starches They provide a quick form of energy for the body Glycogen: Used for energy storage in animals I am formed in the Liver!

8 More Polysaccharides Cellulose: Provides structural support in plants (found in the cell wall) Chitin: Found in exoskeletens of arthropods (insects, spiders) Found in cell wall of some fungi GIVES US FIBER!!!

9 Structure of Carbohydrates Remember: Elements are C, H, and O Primarily in a Ring shape (but not always)

10 Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!

11 #2: LIPIDS ARE FATS We get 9 kcals per gram Of fat that we consume.

12 Lipids Function: Store energy, Insulates your body, and make up the cell membrane! Elements: C-H-O Monomer (Building blocks): glycerol & 3 fatty acids Polymer: Phospholipids, triglycerides Example: Steroids, cholesterol, fats, Oils, Nuts, Waxes, and make up part of the cell membrane!

13 Lipids Lipids are Hydrophobic (water fearing) and do not dissolve in water! Lipids can be: Saturated: The bonds between all the carbons are single bonds. Solid at room temperature Mainly animal fats (bacon grease, lard) Unsaturated: There is at least one double or triple bond between carbons present. Liquid at room temperature Mainly plant based fats (olive oil, peanut oil) as well as oily fish (Tuna, Sardines) Important!

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15 Lipid Structure  Remember: Elements present are C, H, O  Long strands of Carbon and Hydrogen Unsaturated Fats Saturated Fats CALLED HYDROCARBONS!

16 Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!

17 BIOMOLECULES PART 2 PROTEINS AND NUCLEIC ACIDS!

18 #3: PROTEINS BUILD US We get 4 kcals per gram Of protein that we consume.

19 Proteins Function of proteins Transport molecules in and out of the cell Control the speed of chemical reactions Used for growth and repair Proteins make up the structure of living things… Hair, nails, skin, bones, muscle, etc are all built by protein!

20 Proteins Elements: C-H-O-N Monomer (Building Block): amino acids (20 different ones!) Polymer: proteins (tons) Examples of proteins: hemoglobin in red blood cells, albumin in eggs, enzymes that control reactions in the body, and antibodies Found in: fish, eggs, meat NITROGEN IS PRESENT, NOW!

21 Protein Structure  Remember: Elements are C, H, O, and N  “R” groups represent one of the 20 Amino Acids! (so, each amino acid has something different in that spot)

22 Why are amino acids important? When groups of amino acids are joined together a protein is formed There are 20 kinds of amino acids They consist of a carboxyl group (COOH) and an amino group NH2 Peptide bonds form between amino acids (polypeptide = many peptide bonds = protein!)

23 Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!

24 #4: NUCLEIC ACIDS These biomolecules are not necessarily from food

25 Nucleic acids Function: Provide our genetic information Holds the instructions to make proteins. Elements: C-H-O-N-P Monomer : nucleotides A nucleotide is made up of: Sugar Phosphate Nitrogen Base: A, T, G, C, or U Polymer: DNA, RNA and ATP Genetic code! Recipe for proteins Energy carrier

26 Structure of Nucleic Acid

27 Take a minute to find the word that does NOT belong. Raise your hand, do not shout out!


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