2 DefinitionsHIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus – A pathogen that destroys infection-fighting T cells in the body.AIDS – Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome – A condition that results after a person becomes infected with HIV.You can’t catch ADS, AIDS develops after HIV has inflicted enough destruction of the body cells.
3 Words to Know:Lymphocytes – White blood cells that help the body fight pathogens. They multiply in lymph tissues in order to fight infectionsB Cells – A white blood cell that produces antibodiesHelper T Cells – A white blood cell that signals B cells to produce antibodiesAntibody – A special protein that helps fight infection
4 How HIV WorksWhen HIV enters the body it attaches to the helper T cellsHIV takes control of the helper T cells and produces more HIVAs HIV reproduces, it takes control of the other helper T cellsHelper T cells are now unable to attach and kill other pathogens that enter the body
5 Signs and Symptoms of HIV Flu-like symptomsFeverDiarrheaSore ThroatSkin RashSwollen GlandsLoss of AppetiteNight Sweats
6 More about Signs and Symptoms Symptoms may come and go as the helper T cell count fluctuatesMany people will not develop severe symptoms for yearsAs the helper T cell count drops, the person becomes more susceptible to many opportunistic infectionsOpportunistic Infections – An infection that develops in a person with a weak immune system.
7 Opportunistic Infections from HIV Thrush – Is a fungal infection of the mucous membrane of the tongue and mouth. Causes white spots and ulcers.Kaposi’s Sarcoma – Is a type of cancer that causes purplish lesions and tumors on the skin and linings of internal organs.AIDS Dementia Complex – Loss of brain functionHIV Wasting Syndrome – Substantial loss of body weight that is accompanied by high fevers, sweating and diarrhea
8 Facts About HIVRoughly 40,000 people in the US become infected with HIV each year¼ to 1/3 do not know they are infectedPeople with or without symptoms can pass the virus to othersMany people do not show symptoms for many years after infection
9 When HIV becomes AIDSAccording to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) a person infected with HIV who has 200 or fewer helper T cells per microliter of blood or an opportunistic infection is diagnosed with AIDS
10 How is HIV Spread?Through contact with certain bodily fluids which include:BloodSemenVaginal SecretionsFew cases through breast milk**To date no documented cases are from transmission through saliva and tears
11 Risk Behaviors that May Lead to HIV Sexual ContactOpen Mouth Kissing – Although risk of transmission this way is lowSharing Needles/Syringes for injectable drugsSharing Needles for Tattoos or PiercingsContact with the blood, other bodily fluid or mucous membranesBlood Transfusion w/ infected personTissue Transplant (organ donation)Being born to a mother infected
12 How to Avoid HIV Abstain from sex until you are married Get tested for HIV if you have been sexually activeHave your partner get tested for HIVChoose a drug-free lifestyleAvoid sharing needles used for tattoos and/or piercings
13 HIV/AIDS Treatments **There is no cure for HIV or AIDS** Treatment focuses on slowing the progression of the virusEarly treatment is critical in slowing the rate at which HIV multipliesTypically 8-10 years until AIDS occursDrugs are used to slow the progression although there are serious side effects from some of the drugs
14 HIV Tests Antibody test – Detects HIV antibodies in the blood Usually show up in the blood after 3 months of having the infection but can take up to 6 monthsIf a test is confirmed as positive it is repeated to confirm the resultsWestern Blot – Used once an antibody test has come back positiveHome Testing – The FDA has approved home testing for antibodies that gets mailed to a lab for testing