# Chapter one Science Skills.

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Chapter one Science Skills

Chapter one learning objectives
Students will be able to: distinguish the differences between branches of science. problem solve using the scientific method. demonstrate proficiency in graphing. effectively use the metric system. use appropriate units of measurement. demonstrate knowledge of safety concerns.

The Nature of Science The goal of science is to understand the world around us. Through observation, scientists use facts to solve the mysteries of nature and form theories. A scientific theory is a time-tested concept that makes useful and dependable predictions about the natural world.

Branches of Science Life Science deals with living things, their parts and their actions. Earth Science is the study of the Earth and its rocks, oceans, volcanoes, earthquakes, atmosphere and other features. Physical Science is the study of matter and energy.

Space and Time The universe is very old—approximately 13.7 billion years. It’s also very HUGE, at about 700 million billion billion meters in diameter. The diameter of the Earth is only 12,700,000 meters.

Matter and Change Because the universe is mostly empty space, as are you, there is very little matter but what there is is in the form of a solid, liquid or gas.

Forces and Motion The universe is filled with forces and motion. When a force is applied to an object, it will either move or stop moving. The laws of physics allow movements to be calculated by the size of the force and thus enable us to do things like fly airplanes or land on the moon. Lunar landing

Energy Energy exists as both kinetic and potential energy.
Kinetic energy is the energy of moving objects like a moving car. Potential energy is stored energy like the energy that is stored in gasoline before it’s combusted. The energy is there, just not being released.

The Scientific Method The scientific method is a systematic approach to problem solving. The basic steps are as follows: 1. Stating the problem. 2. Gathering information on the problem. 3. Forming a hypothesis. 4. Performing experiments to test the hypothesis. 5. Stating a conclusion. 6. Repeating the work.

Scientific Method Hypothesis are always written as an if…then statement. In every experiment there is always a control and a variable. The variable is the factor that is being tested.

Scientific Method Data that is collected during an experiment is always recorded in data tables. Conclusion statements must address the hypothesis. Was the hypothesis correct or incorrect and why?

A scientific law summarizes observed experimental facts but it does not explain the facts. An example is gravity.

The Metric System The standard system used by scientists is the metric system. The metric system is also referred to as SI or International System of Units. Scientists use the metric system to measure length, volume, mass, density, and temperature. Length is measured in meters. A meter is equal to approximately 39.4 inches. Small lengths are measured in millimeters (mm) while large lengths are measured in kilometers (km).

Volume Volume is measured in liters. A liter is slightly more than a quart. Small volumes are measured in milliliters (mL) and all other volumes are measured in liters (L). The metric unit for the volumes of solids is the cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc). 1 mL is equal to 1 cc. Graduated cylinder (mL)

Mass Mass is measured in kilograms. Smaller masses are measured in grams. One gram is approximately equal to the mass of a paper clip.

Density Density is the measurement of a substance’s mass per unit of volume. Density is equal to mass divided by volume.

Temperature Temperature is measured in degrees Celsius. 0o C is the temperature of freezing water while 100oC is the temperature of boiling water.

Organizing Data Bar graph
Data can be organized using tables and graphs. Line graphs show changes that occur in related variables. The formula for the slope of a line is: slope = Rise/Run Bar graphs compare a set of measurements. Circle graphs show how a part of something compares to the whole.

Direct proportion graph
Indirect or inverse proportion graph

Tools of Measurement Measuring length: A metric ruler is used to measure the length of objects. Measuring mass: Mass is measured with a triple beam balance or an electronic Measuring temperature: Temperature is measured with a Celsius thermometer.

Safety in the Classroom
Eye safety: 1. When you are heating a test tube, always point it away from your face. 2. Always wear eye protection when conducting an experiment.

Safety in the Classroom
Fire safety: 1. Never heat anything, especially chemicals unless instructed to. 2. Never reach across a flame. 3. Never heat anything in a closed container.