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Introduction to Earth Science Scientific Method & the Metric System Introduction to Earth Science Scientific Method and the Metric System

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The Nature of Science The goal of science is to understand the world around us Special methods help to determine truths about nature

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Branches of Earth Science The three main branches of science are: Life Science Earth Science Physical Science

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Earth Science Earth science deals with the study of the Earth, its history, changes, and its place in the Universe There are four branches of earth science

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Branches of Earth Science Geology- Earths origin, history, and structure Meteorology- Earths atmosphere & weather Oceanography- Earths oceans, including their physical features, life forms, and natural resources Astronomy- Planets, stars, and other objects in space

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The Scientific Method An orderly, systematic approach to problem solving The way scientists, and non-scientists, look for answers There are seven basic steps to the scientific method

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Step 1: Stating the problem –Decide what you want to know –State the problem in the form of a question

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Step 2: Gathering information on the problem –Research whats already known –Collect information and facts

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Step 3: Forming a hypothesis - A hypothesis is a proposed solution to a scientific problem –T–There are two main parts to a hypothesis 1. An explanation- why it will happen 2. A prediction- what will happen

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Step 4: Experimenting –Perform one or more experiments to test the hypothesis –When performing experiments: 1.Divide subjects into test groups 2.In each experiment you should have a control group, that doesnt get any of the variable, and several test groups 3.Keep everything, except the amount of the variable, the same between groups

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Step 5: Recording and analyzing data –Observe and write down important information (data) –Organize data using graphs, tables, and charts –Look for patterns or trends

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Step 6: Stating the conclusion –L–Look at data and form conclusions –D–Did the conclusions support your hypothesis? (why or why not?) –R–Re-evaluate the hypothesis and formulate new questions

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Step 7: Repeating the work –In order for a hypothesis to be excepted it has to be able to withstand repeated testing –After many experiments, where a hypothesis has continually been proven to be correct, it may be accepted by the scientific community and then considered to be a theory –A theory is the most logical explanation for events that occur in nature

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The Metric System A universal measurement system (also called the International System) Being based on multiples of ten makes it easy to use Uses prefixes to identify larger or smaller units of measure PrefixSymbolMultiple kiloK1000 centic.01 millim.001

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Metric Conversions - Length Kmmdmcmmm x 1000 x 10 x 10 x 10 ÷ 1000 ÷ 10 ÷ 10 ÷10

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Metric Conversions - Volume Kl l dl clml x 1000 x 10 x 10 x 10 ÷ 1000 ÷ 10 ÷ 10 ÷10

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Metric Conversions - Mass Kg g dg cgmg x 1000 x 10 x 10 x 10 ÷ 1000 ÷ 10 ÷ 10 ÷10

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Length A measure of linear distance Basic unit of length is the meter (m) Use a meter stick or metric ruler to make measurements The entire meter stick represents one meter Each number represents a centimeter (there are 100 centimeters in a meter) Each little line is a millimeter (there are 1000 millimeters in a meter)

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Area The amount of surface included within a set of boundaries Determined by measuring the length and width of an object, then multiplying Length = 14 cm Width = 7 cm Area = 14 cm x 7 cm = 98 cm 2 (Area is always expressed in square units)

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Volume Volume is the space that an object occupies Represents the length, width, and height of an object For solids, measurements are based on units of length (ex. cm 3 ) and can be calculated using specific formulas

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Calculating the volume of a rectangle Volume of a rectangle = length x width x height (l x w x h) Length = 10 cm Width = 3 cm Height = 4 cm Volume = l x w x h = 10 cm x 3 cm x 4 cm = 120 cm 3 10 cm 4 cm 3 cm

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Calculating the volume of a cylinder Volume of a cylinder = x radius 2 x height ( x r 2 x h) = 3.14 Radius = ½ diameter = ½ 10 cm = 5 cm Height = 20 cm Volume = x r 2 x h = 3.14 x (5 cm) 2 x 20 cm = 3.14 x 25 cm 2 x 20 cm = 1570 cm 3 Diameter = 10 cm 20 cm

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Volume of a liquid A graduated cylinder is used to accurately measure the volume of liquids in milliliters Determine the volume in a graduated cylinder by reading the bottom of the meniscus at eye level Once the volume of a liquid is known, it can be converted to a solid volume by using the formula 1 ml = 1 cm 3

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Mass Mass is a measure of the amount of matter Mass is measured in grams using a balance The mass of an object remains the same, no matter where in the universe it is measured

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Weight Weight is a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object by a massive body Weight is measured in Newtons (N) using a spring scale Weight varies from place to place depending on the strength of the gravitational force

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Gravity Gravity is the force of attraction between objects The strength of the gravitational force between objects depends on: - the distance between the objects ( the gravitational force between objects decreases with distance) -Mass ( the greater the mass of an object, the greater its gravitational force)

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Density Density is the mass of a specific volume of an object Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume Units for density are usually expressed in grams per cubic centimeter (g/cm 3 ) Since the density of water is 1 g/cm 3 anything with a density less than 1 g/cm 3 will float in water and anything greater will sink

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