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© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West Alabama t e n t h e d i t i o n Gary Dessler Chapter 7 Part 2 Recruitment and Placement Interviewing Candidates
After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. List the main types of selection interviews. 2. Explain and illustrate at least six factors that affect the usefulness of interviews. 3. Explain and illustrate each guideline for being a more effective interviewer. 4. Effectively interview a job candidate. 1. List the main types of selection interviews. 2. Explain and illustrate at least six factors that affect the usefulness of interviews. 3. Explain and illustrate each guideline for being a more effective interviewer. 4. Effectively interview a job candidate. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 7–2
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–3 Interviews Definition –A procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries Types Selection interview –A selection procedure designed to predict future job performance on the basis of applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries. –Are good at assessing: Organizational fit, level of motivation, interpersonal skills. Appraisal interview –A discussion, following a performance appraisal, in which supervisor and employee discuss the employee’s rating and possible remedial actions. Exit interview –An interview to elicit information about the job or related matters to the employer some insight into what’s right or wrong about the firm.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–4 Key Features of Selection Interview Most common personnel selection tool, & last of the selection hurdles Is a subjective evaluation of applicant suitability that relies on human judgment Is used to make decisions about degree of fit between people and jobs Matching requires information about job and individual applicant.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–5 Formats of Interviews Unstructured or nondirective interview –An unstructured conversational-style interview in which the interviewer pursues points of interest as they come up in response to questions. –Less reliable and valid Structured or directive interview –An interview following a set sequence of questions. –More reliable and valid
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–6 Interview Content: Types of Questions Job-related interview –A series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-related behaviors. Behavioral interview –A series of job-related questions that focus on how they reacted to actual situations in the past. Situational interview –A series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation. STAR questions and answers
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–7 Types of Questions: Behavioral Behavioral Question: Asks about candidate’s actual previous behavior. Assumes that people’s most recent behaviors predict their near future behaviors. Examples: – Tell me about a time that you... – Give me an example of when...
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–8 Type of Question: Situational Situational Question: Poses a situation related to the job, and asks what the candidate would do. Assumes that people will do what they say should be done. Examples: – Suppose an employee came to you with a personal problem... – What would you do if... What if…?
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–9 STAR Approach to Questions Ask for short, specific, BEHAVIORAL answers. E.g., STAR approach. S Situation: What was the problem situation? T Task: What result did you desire? A Action: What did you actually do? R Result: What was the result, money saved, problem solved, etc.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–10 Interview Content: Types of Questions Stress interview –An interview in which the interviewer seeks to make the applicant uncomfortable with occasionally rude questions that supposedly spot sensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance. Puzzle questions –Recruiters for technical, finance, and other types of jobs use questions to pose problems requiring unique (“out-of-the-box”) solutions to see how candidates think under pressure.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–11 Number of Interviewers Solo Interview –One interviewer questions one applicant and forms an opinion. Sequential interview –Each of a number of interviewers forms an independent opinion after separately questioning the applicant. Panel interview –A group of interviewers together questions the applicant. Mass interview –A panel of raters interviews several candidates simultaneously.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–12 Designing and Conducting the Interview The structured situational interview –Use either situational questions (preferred) or behavioral questions that yield high criteria- related validities. –Step 1: Job Analysis –Step 2: Rate the Job’s Main Duties –Step 3: Create Interview Questions –Step 4: Create Benchmark Answers –Step 5: Appoint the Interview Panel and Conduct Interviews
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–13 How to Conduct an Effective Interview Structure your interview: 1.Base questions on actual job duties. 2.Use job knowledge, situational, or behaviorally oriented questions and objective criteria to evaluate the interviewee’s responses. 3.Train interviewers. 4.Use the same questions with all candidates. 5.Use descriptive rating scales (excellent, fair, poor) to rate answers. 6.Use multiple interviewers or panel interviews. 7.If possible, use a standardized interview form. 8.Control the interview. 9.Take brief, unobtrusive notes during the interview.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–14 Examples of Questions That Provide Structure Situational Questions: 1.Suppose a co-worker was not following standard work procedures. The co-worker was more experienced than you and claimed the new procedure was better. Would you use the new procedure? 2. Suppose you were giving a sales presentation and a difficult technical question arose that you could not answer. What would you do? Past Behavior Questions: 3. Based on your past work experience, what is the most significant action you have ever taken to help out a co-worker? 4. Can you provide an example of a specific instance where you developed a sales presentation that was highly effective? Background Questions: 5. What work experiences, training, or other qualifications do you have for working in a teamwork environment? 6. What experience have you had with direct point-of-purchase sales? Job Knowledge Questions: 7. What steps would you follow to conduct a brainstorming session with a group of employees on safety? 8. What factors should you consider when developing a television advertising campaign? Note: So that direct comparisons can be made, an example is presented to assess both teamwork (1,3,5,7) and sales attributes (2,4,6,8) for each type of question. Source: Michael Campion, David Palmer, and James Campion, “A Review of Structure in the Selection Interview,” Personnel Psychology (1997), p. 668.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–15 How to Conduct an Effective Interview (cont’d) Prepare for the interview –Secure a private room to minimize interruptions. –Review the candidate’s application and résumé. –Review the job specifications Establish rapport –Put the person at ease. Ask questions –Follow your list of questions. –Don’t ask questions that can be answered yes or no.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–16 Factors Affecting Interviews First impressions –The tendency for interviewers to jump to conclusions—make snap judgments—about candidates during the first few minutes of the interview. –Negative bias: unfavorable information about an applicant influences interviewers more than does positive information.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–17 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Misunderstanding the job –Not knowing precisely what the job entails and what sort of candidate is best suited causes interviewers to make decisions based on incorrect stereotypes of what a good applicant is. Candidate-order error –An error of judgment on the part of the interviewer due to interviewing one or more very good or very bad candidates just before the interview in question.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–18 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Nonverbal behavior and impression management –Interviewers’ inferences of the interviewee’s personality from the way he or she acts in the interview have a large impact on the interviewer’s rating of the interviewee. –Clever interviewees attempt to manage the impression they present to persuade interviewers to view them more favorably.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–19 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Effect of personal characteristics: attractiveness, gender, race –Interviewers tend have a less favorable view of candidates who are: Physically unattractive Female Of a different racial background Disabled
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–20 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Interviewer behaviors affecting interview outcomes –Inadvertently telegraphing expected answers. –Talking so much that applicants have no time to answer questions. –Letting the applicant dominate the interview. –Acting more positively toward a favored (or similar to the interviewer) applicant.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–21 Unsuccessful Applicants Should be treated well Letter or call to notify them of decision Be careful of “why?” Keep on file/in mind for future positions
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–22 Key Terms Unstructured or nondirective Interview Structured or directive interview Situational interview Behavioral interviews Job-related interview Stress interview Unstructured sequential interview Structured sequential interview Panel interview Mass interview Candidate-order error
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–23 Administrative Officer Example Job Characteristics Contract administration Supervision Training Budgeting Policy making Coordination Goal setting Person Characteristics Communication skills Organized Motivate self & others Analytical Multitask Interpersonal Decision-making Select the most important job and person characteristics to ask about:
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–24 Competencies Those skills required to perform adequately in a given job. Direct observable behaviors, derived through job analysis Single vs. composite competencies Organizationally specific and generic Examples Communication Leadership Adaptability Relationships Task management Production Development of others Personal Development
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–25 Common Questions Tell me about yourself What did you like most about previous jobs? Why did you leave your previous jobs? What are your major strengths, weaknesses? Why are you interested in our company? What type supervisor do you like? Describe a situation where... – your work was criticized. – you had to make a difficult decision
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–26 Initial Impressions Timing, preparation, grooming Handshake, eye-contact, poise Talking and listening Enthusiasm, attitude The first few minutes of the interview are when most hiring decisions are made.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.7–27 Parts of the Interview & Schedule Typical 1-hour Interview START
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