4 Basic Features of Interviews An interviewA procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiriesTypes of interviewsSelection interviewAppraisal interviewExit interviewInterviews formatsStructuredUnstructured
9 Interview Content: Types of Questions Situational interviewA series of job-related questions that focus on how the candidate would behave in a given situation.Behavioral interviewA series of job-related questions that focus on how they reacted to actual situations in the past.Job-related interviewA series of job-related questions that focus on relevant past job-related behaviors.
10 Interview Content: Types of Questions Stress interviewAn interview in which the interviewer seeks to make the applicant uncomfortable with occasionally rude questions that supposedly to spot sensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance.Puzzle questionsRecruiters for technical, finance, and other types of jobs use questions to pose problems requiring unique (“out-of-the-box”) solutions to see how candidates think under pressure.
15 Errors that Undermine Interviews Snap judgmentsJob requirementsCandidate-order & pressure to hireNonverbal behavior & impression managementPersonal characteristicsInterviewer mistakesPerhaps the most consistent finding is that interviewers tend to jump to conclusions—make snap during the first few minutes of the interview. Sometimes this occurs before the interview starts, based on test scores or résumé data.Interviewers may not have an accurate picture of the job requirements and what sort of candidate is best suited for it. If that’s the case, they may make their decisions based on incorrect impressions or stereotypes of what a good applicant is.Candidate-order error means the order in which you see applicants affects how you rate them. There is some indication that the effects of primacy (who you interviewed first) or recency (most recently interviewed) can impact your decisions.The applicant’s nonverbal behavior can also have a surprisingly large impact on his or her rating. Interviewers infer your personality from your nonverbal behaviors in the interview. Clever candidates capitalize on non-verbal behavior and impression management. One study found that some used ingratiation to persuade interviewers to like them. Psychologists call using techniques like ingratiation and self-promotion “impression management.”Unfortunately, physical attributes such as applicants’ attractiveness, gender, disability, or race also may distort an interviewer’s assessments.Interviewers may make numerous mistakes such as:Having favorable pre-interview impressionsPlaying district attorney or amateur psychologistAsking improper questionsBeing inept
16 Factors Affecting Interviews First impressionsThe tendency for interviewers to jump to conclusions—make snap judgments—about candidates during the first few minutes of the interview.Negative bias: unfavorable information about an applicant influences interviewers more than does positive information.
17 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Misunderstanding the jobNot knowing precisely what the job entails and what sort of candidate is best suited causes interviewers to make decisions based on incorrect stereotypes of what a good applicant is.Candidate-order errorAn error of judgment on the part of the interviewer due to interviewing one or more very good or very bad candidates just before the interview in question.
18 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Nonverbal behavior and impression managementInterviewers’ inferences of the interviewee’s personality from the way he or she acts in the interview have a large impact on the interviewer’s rating of the interviewee.Clever interviewees attempt to manage the impression they present to persuade interviewers to view them more favorably.
19 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Effect of personal characteristics: attractiveness, gender, raceInterviewers tend have a less favorable view of candidates who are:Physically unattractiveFemaleOf a different racial backgroundDisabled
20 Factors Affecting Interviews (cont’d) Interviewer behaviors affecting interview outcomesInadvertently telegraphing expected answers.Talking so much that applicants have no time to answer questions.Letting the applicant dominate the interview.Acting more positively toward a favored (or similar to the interviewer) applicant.
24 How to Conduct an Effective Interview Ask questions: Try to follow the situational, behavioral, and job knowledge questions you wrote out ahead of time.Take notes: Take brief, unobtrusive notes while conducting the interview. Doing so may help avoid making a snap decision early in the interview, and may also help jog your memory once the interview is complete.Close the interview: Leave time to answer any questions the candidate may have and, if appropriate, to advocate your firm to the candidate.Review the interview: After the candidate leaves, review your interview notes. Then score the interview guide answers (if you used one), and make a decision. Do this as quickly as possible so your thoughts and perceptions are as fresh as they can be.