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Interviewing Candidates 7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-1.

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Presentation on theme: "Interviewing Candidates 7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Interviewing Candidates 7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-1

2 Learning Objectives 1.List the main types of selection interviews. 2.List and explain the main errors that can undermine an interview’s usefulness. 3.Define a structured situational interview. Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-2

3 Learning Objectives 4.Explain and illustrate each guideline for being a more effective interviewer. 5.Give several examples of situational questions, behavioral questions, and background questions that provide structure. Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-3

4 List the main types of selection interviews. Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-4

5 5 Basic Features of Interviews Interview Structure Interview Administration Selection Interviews Interview Content An interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquiries. A selection interview (the focus of this chapter) is a selection procedure designed to predict future job performance based on applicants’ oral responses to oral inquiries.

6 Basic Types of Interviews Structured vs. unstructured Content - Questions to ask o Situational o Behavioral o Job-related o Stress Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-6

7 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-7 In unstructured (or nondirective) interviews, the manager follows no set format. In structured (or directive) interviews, the employer lists the questions ahead of time. He or she also may even list and score possible answers for appropriateness. Structured interviews are generally superior. In structured interviews, all interviewers generally ask all applicants the same questions. It’s clear the courts will look at whether the interview process is structured and consistently applied. In a situational interview, you ask the candidate what his or her behavior would be in a given situation. Behavioral interviews ask applicants to describe how they reacted to actual situations in the past. In a job-related interview, the applicants answer questions about relevant past experiences. In stress interviews, the applicant is made uncomfortable by a series of often rude questions. This technique helps identify hypersensitive applicants and those with low or high stress tolerance.

8 Administering Interviews Panel Phone Video/web-assisted Computerized Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-8

9 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-9 Employers also administer interviews in various ways. These include one- on-one or by a panel of interviewers, sequentially or all at once, and computerized or personally. In an unstructured sequential interview, each interviewer generally just asks questions as they come to mind. In a structured sequential interview, each interviewer rates the candidates on a standard evaluation form, using standardized questions. A panel interview is an interview conducted by a team of interviewers who interview each candidate and then combine their ratings into a final panel score. Employers do some interviews entirely by telephone. These can actually be more accurate than face-to-face interviews for judging an applicant’s conscientiousness, intelligence, and interpersonal skills. Firms have long used the Web to do selection interviews. With iPad-type video functionalities and the widespread use of Skype™, their use is growing. A computerized interview is one in which a job candidate’s oral and/or computerized replies are obtained in response to questions and/or situations.

10 Three Ways to Make the Interview Useful Structure the interview Structured interviews are more valid than unstructured interviews for predicting job performance. This is especially true for structured interviews using situational questions Carefully select traits to assess To reduce interview errors, limit yourself mostly to situational and job knowledge questions. This will help you assess how the candidate will actually respond to typical situations on that job. Beware of committing interviewing errors Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-10

11 List and explain the main errors that can undermine an interview’s usefulness Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-11

12 12 What Can Undermine An Interview’s Usefulness? Non-Verbal Behavior and Impression Management Applicant’s Personal Characteristics Interviewer Behavior Factors Affecting Interviews First Impressions (Snap Judgments) Interviewer’s Misunderstanding of the Job Candidate-Order (Contrast) Error and Pressure to Hire Errors that Undermine Interviews

13 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-13 Perhaps the most consistent finding is that interviewers tend to jump to conclusions—make snap during the first few minutes of the interview. Sometimes this occurs before the interview starts, based on test scores or résumé data. Interviewers may not have an accurate picture of the job requirements and what sort of candidate is best suited for it. If that’s the case, they may make their decisions based on incorrect impressions or stereotypes of what a good applicant is. Candidate-order error means the order in which you see applicants affects how you rate them. There is some indication that the effects of primacy (who you interviewed first) or recency (most recently interviewed) can impact your decisions.

14 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-14 The applicant’s nonverbal behavior can also have a surprisingly large impact on his or her rating. Interviewers infer your personality from your nonverbal behaviors in the interview. Clever candidates capitalize on non-verbal behavior and impression management. One study found that some used ingratiation to persuade interviewers to like them. Psychologists call using techniques like ingratiation and self-promotion “impression management.” Unfortunately, physical attributes such as applicants’ attractiveness, gender, disability, or race also may distort an interviewer’s assessments. Interviewers may make numerous mistakes such as: Having favorable pre-interview impressions Playing district attorney or amateur psychologist Asking improper questions Being inept

15 Define a structured situational interview Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-15

16 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-16 STEP 1: Job Analysis- Write a job description with a list of job duties; required knowledge, skills, and abilities; and other worker qualifications. STEP 2: Rate each job duty, say from 1 to 5, based on its importance to job success. STEP 3: Create interview questions for each of the job duties, with more questions for the important duties. STEP 4: Next, for each question, develop ideal (benchmark) answers for good (a 5 rating), marginal (a 3 rating), and poor (a 1 rating) answers. STEP 5: Select a panel consisting of three to six members, preferably the same ones who wrote the questions and answers. It may also include the job’s supervisor and/or incumbent, and a human resources representative. The same panel interviews all candidates for the job, conduct the interview. Designing & Conducting -Structured Interviews

17 Explain and illustrate each guideline for being a more effective interviewer Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-17

18 How to Conduct an effective Interview There are 8 steps to conducting an effective interview 1- Make sure you know the job Do not start the interview unless you understand the job and what human skills you’re looking for. Study the job description. 2- Structure the interview Base questions on actual job duties. Use job knowledge, situational, or behavioral questions, and know the job to be able to evaluate the interviewee’s answers. Use descriptive rating scales (excellent, fair, poor) to rate answers. If possible, use a standardized interview form. 3- Get organized Hold the interview in a private room where telephone calls are not accepted and you can minimize interruptions. Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-18

19 How to Conduct an Effective Interview 4- Establish rapport The main reason for the interview is to find out about the applicant. To do this, start by putting the person at ease. Greet the candidate and start the interview by asking a noncontroversial question, perhaps about the weather or the traffic conditions that day. Also, let the candidate know what the timeframe is for the interview. Mention how much time you will likely use and how much time he or she will have to ask questions. 5- Ask questions Try to follow the situational, behavioral, and job knowledge questions you wrote out ahead of time. Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-19

20 Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-20 6- Take notes Take brief, unobtrusive notes while conducting the interview. Doing so may help avoid making a snap decision early in the interview, and may also help jog your memory once the interview is complete. 7- Close the interview Leave time to answer any questions the candidate may have and, if appropriate, to advocate your firm to the candidate. 8- Review the interview After the candidate leaves, review your interview notes. Then score the interview guide answers (if you used one), and make a decision. Do this as quickly as possible so your thoughts and perceptions are as fresh as they can be. How to Conduct an Effective Interview

21 Give several examples of situational questions, behavioral questions, and background questions that provide structure Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-21

22 Situational (What Would You Do) Questions Situational questions require the candidate to project themselves into a particular situation and explain what they might do. Such questions can provide information about leadership, communication, managing stress, ambition, problem solving and many other important characteristics. It’s a good idea to develop such questions from actual situations that have occurred in your firm. Suppose your boss insisted that a presentation had to be finished by tonight. Your subordinate said she has to get home early to attend an online class, so she is unable to help you. What would you do? The CEO just told you that he’s planning on firing your boss, with whom you are very close, and replacing him with you. What would you do? Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-22

23 Behavioral (Past Behavior) Questions Asking behavioral questions (the candidate’s past behaviors) is another way to gather the types of information we discussed. Here, the candidate can demonstrate careful preparation for the interview. That is, a good candidate will have thought through questions similar to the ones you ask and prepared answers carefully. Such preparation may also suggest appropriate introspection on the part of the candidate. Tell me about a time when you had to deal with a particularly obnoxious person. Describe the situation in detail, and explain how you handled it. Tell me about a time when you were under a great deal of stress. What was the situation, and how did you handle it? Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-23

24 Background Questions Background questions are usually best use in the early stages of an interview to help establish rapport as well as validate the resume. They also can lead to other follow-on questions later and provide a touchstone for both the candidate and interviewer. What kind and how much experience have you had actually repairing automobile engines? Describe the types and years of experience you have had creating marketing programs for consumer products? Copyright © 2013 Pearson EducationChapter 7-24

25 25 BOX 7-1 Examples of Questions That Provide Structure Situational Questions 1.Suppose a co-worker was not following standard work procedures. The co-worker was more experienced than you and claimed the new procedure was better. Would you use the new procedure? 2.Suppose you were giving a sales presentation and a difficult technical question arose that you could not answer. What would you do? Past Behavior Questions 3.Based on your past work experience, what is the most significant action you have ever taken to help out a co-worker? 4.Can you provide an example of a specific instance where you developed a sales presentation that was highly effective? Background Questions 5.What work experiences, training, or other qualifications do you have for working in a teamwork environment? 6.What experience have you had with direct point-of-purchase sales? Job Knowledge Questions 7.What steps would you follow to conduct a brainstorming session with a group of employees on safety? 8.What factors should you consider when developing a television advertising campaign? Note: These questions provide structure in so far as they are job-related, and the employer can be consistent in asking them of all candidates.

26 26 BOX 7-2 Suggested Supplementary Questions for Interviewing Applicants 1.How did you choose this line of work? 2.What did you enjoy most about your last job? 3.What did you like least about your last job? 4.What were the circumstances surrounding your leaving your last job? 5.Why should we be hiring you? 6.What do you expect from this employer? 7.What are your major strengths and weaknesses? 8.How can your supervisor best help you obtain your goals? 9.How did your supervisor rate your job performance? 10.Which do you prefer, working alone or working with groups? 11.What motivated you to do better at your last job? 12.Do you consider your progress in that job representative of your ability? Why? 13.Do you have any questions about the duties of the job for which you have applied?

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