From: May, V., The first handheld aviation navigator, Navigation News Nov/Dec 2001, pp8-9..
From: Simmons, Practical applications of GPS for GIS and civil engineering, Suppl. To Civil Engineering, 114, Sp. Issue 2, pp30-34.
Photo: Ashtech Inc., Optron Pty.
Threats from intentional (malicious) interference Threats from unintentional interference Risks can be reduced but not eliminated Consequences severe for safety, economic damage A tempting target for those hostile to the US GPS can be jammed GPS can be spoofed – gives misleading information Minimise consequences by awareness and planning Need backup system & procedures in critical applications
Source: Clynch et al, Multiple GPS RFI Sources in a Small California Harbor, ION GPS02, Portland OR.
Observer, London, 29 Jan
UK accepts total reliance on GPS not acceptable Marine Navigation to retain traditional aids Aviation: terrestrial backup except over North Sea and North Atlantic, benign environments for interference David Jamieson, Under Secretary of State, Dept. of Transport
Mobile phones 73% Car navigation 23% Aviation 1% Fleet management 1% Leisure 1% Surveying 1% Augmentation 1%
Commission has taken account of Volpe Galileo has taken potential threats into account Galileo far less vulnerable than current GPS Galileo to transmit on variety of different and separated frequencies, thus eliminating most concerns expressed in Volpe report Heinz Hilbrecht, Director, Inland Transport, European Commission DG for Energy and Transport
Godet et al, Galileo spectrum and interoperability issues GNSS2003, Graz, Austria April 2003
Robert G. Bell, GPS and Galileo – Capabilities and compatibility European satellites for security conference, Brussels, Belgium, 19 June 2002 NATO does have a very clear interest in making sure that (it) is able … to deny a potential adversary's access to … any other satellite navigation services during a conflict. Robert G. Bell NATO Assistant Secretary General for Defence Support
Galileo - the challenges: Recovering the investment Who will take legal liability? Securing the frequencies and codes Ceding control to new partners Access to advanced GPS technology … and the dream of independence …