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© David Last Institut für Erdmessung und Navigation Universität der Bundeswehr, München 15 March 2007 Satellite Navigation – Truths & Myths Professor David.

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Presentation on theme: "© David Last Institut für Erdmessung und Navigation Universität der Bundeswehr, München 15 March 2007 Satellite Navigation – Truths & Myths Professor David."— Presentation transcript:

1 © David Last Institut für Erdmessung und Navigation Universität der Bundeswehr, München 15 March 2007 Satellite Navigation – Truths & Myths Professor David Last Royal Institute of Navigation Picture: earthobservatory.nasa. gov//ewsroom/BlueMarble/

2 From: Kelvin Hughes Ltd.

3 From: May, V., The first handheld aviation navigator, Navigation News Nov/Dec 2001, pp8-9..

4 From:

5 From: Simmons, Practical applications of GPS for GIS and civil engineering, Suppl. To Civil Engineering, 114, Sp. Issue 2, pp30-34.

6 Photo: Ashtech Inc., Optron Pty.

7 From:

8 Contents: and

9 Threats from intentional (malicious) interference Threats from unintentional interference Risks can be reduced but not eliminated Consequences severe for safety, economic damage A tempting target for those hostile to the US GPS can be jammed GPS can be spoofed – gives misleading information Minimise consequences by awareness and planning Need backup system & procedures in critical applications

10 Dice is 1mW GPS jammer

11 © David Last Picture: Google Earth

12 Source: Clynch et al, Multiple GPS RFI Sources in a Small California Harbor, ION GPS02, Portland OR.

13

14 Observer, London, 29 Jan

15 UK accepts total reliance on GPS not acceptable Marine Navigation to retain traditional aids Aviation: terrestrial backup except over North Sea and North Atlantic, benign environments for interference David Jamieson, Under Secretary of State, Dept. of Transport

16 Mobile phones 73% Car navigation 23% Aviation 1% Fleet management 1% Leisure 1% Surveying 1% Augmentation 1%

17 © David Last … fewer than 40 of the 137 applications analysed would remain operational following the loss of GPS and its augmentations …

18 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Loran-C Transmitter tower

19 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Loran as a complement to satellite: Satellite Loran-C Low powered: vulnerable High-frequency Line-of-sight: easily blocked A navigation and timing system High-powered: robust Low-frequency Groundwave: penetrates cities A navigation and timing system

20 © David Last

21 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor

22 Commission has taken account of Volpe Galileo has taken potential threats into account Galileo far less vulnerable than current GPS Galileo to transmit on variety of different and separated frequencies, thus eliminating most concerns expressed in Volpe report Heinz Hilbrecht, Director, Inland Transport, European Commission DG for Energy and Transport

23 Picture: europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/intro/index_en.htm

24 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GPS & Galileo - so different: GPS military, Galileo civil GPS single-nation, Galileo multi-nation Frequencies, codes, timing, geodetics GPS free-to-air, Galileo user-pays GPS military-operated, Galileo PPP Its hard to imagine a more different approach …

25 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GPS began life as: A weapons aiming system and force enhancer A US Air Force system with no civil applications

26 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Macrometer V boxes, 91kg Picture: Alison Brown, A perspective on land navigation – the evolution from man-packs to modules, Navsys Corporation

27 David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Picture: Admiralty List of Radio Signals Differential GPS (DGPS )

28 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor March 29, 1996 FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE PRESIDENT OPENS DOOR TO COMMERCIAL GPS MARKETS; MOVE COULD ADD … NEW JOBS TO ECONOMY BY YEAR 2000

29 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor The U.S. Government also maintains the capability to prevent hostile use of GPS and its augmentations while retaining a military advantage in a theater of operations without disrupting or degrading civilian uses outside the theater of operations. U.S. Policy Statement Regarding GPS Availability, March 21, 2003 Source:

30 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Encourage acceptance and integration of GPS into peaceful civil, commercial and scientific applications worldwide. … advocate the acceptance of GPS and U.S. Government augmentations as standards for international use. US policy will be to: U.S. Global Positioning System Policy, Fact sheet,Office of Science and Technology Policy, National Security Council 29 March 1996

31 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GPS is …. an integral component of the … global information infrastructure, with applications … from mapping and surveying to … air traffic management U.S. Global Positioning System Policy, Fact sheet,Office of Science and Technology Policy, National Security Council 29 March 1996

32 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GPS has … generated a US commercial equipment and service industry that leads the world. White House Press Release, 29 March 1996

33 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Limit availability of radionavigation systems … in the event of a real or potential threat of war or impairment to national security. The US government will … 1999 Federal Radionavigation Plan, Section 1.5(l)

34 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GALILEO European Satellite Navigation System Whats new? Real-time integrity - warning of failure Legal service guarantees Multi-nation control Commercial service-provider Civil, not military

35 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor War is glorious!

36 Picture: europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/intro/index_en.htm

37 © David Last Picture: M Dillon, CEO ESYS plc, Royal Institute of Navigation, 19 Dec 2005

38 Picture: europa.eu.int/comm/dgs/energy_transport/galileo/applications/index_en.htm +

39 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Mr. V.T. ImpalerA Mongol horde from the East

40 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GALILEO European Satellite Navigation System A threat to GPS? Challenges US lead Undermines selective denial Shares frequencies

41 Godet et al, Galileo spectrum and interoperability issues GNSS2003, Graz, Austria April 2003

42 Robert G. Bell, GPS and Galileo – Capabilities and compatibility European satellites for security conference, Brussels, Belgium, 19 June 2002 NATO does have a very clear interest in making sure that (it) is able … to deny a potential adversary's access to … any other satellite navigation services during a conflict. Robert G. Bell NATO Assistant Secretary General for Defence Support

43 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor GPS & Galileo - cooperation: Brussels, Feb Europe to move PRS away from M-Code Common baseline signal structures Compatible timing and geodetics Open trade A common goal: the best possible GNSS for users …

44 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor

45 Galileo - the challenges: Recovering the investment Who will take legal liability? Securing the frequencies and codes Ceding control to new partners Access to advanced GPS technology … and the dream of independence …

46 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Galileo - still independent? Combined GPS-Galileo receivers Agreements over security Level commercial playing field Common interference vulnerability When would GPS be withdrawn, and Galileo continue, independently?

47 © David Last 15 March 2007 München Satellite Navigation – Truths & Myths? Professor David Last Royal Institute of Navigation A generation ago, navigation was a specialised art practised by a small number of professionals. GPS brought radio- navigation to every yachtsman. Then it developed into a powerful utility that will serve all our navigation, tracking and timing needs at sea, on land, and in the air. Soon, Galileo will join GPS, giving Europe independence of the US in satellite navigation, and a vigorous new industry. How many of these statements are true? And which of them are myths?

48 © David Last, University of Wales, Bangor Galileo - Combined with GPS Contributions from other nations A Global Satellite Navigation System GPS & Galileo: Where are we headed?


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