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The Cardiovascular System … and the beat goes on..

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Presentation on theme: "The Cardiovascular System … and the beat goes on.."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cardiovascular System … and the beat goes on.

2 This presentation covers: 1. Structure of the heart 2. The cardiac cycle 3. Structure and organization of blood vessels

3 What is the cardiovascular system? The heart is a double pump: Heart  arteries  arterioles  Veins  venules  capillaries

4 The Double Pump: Systemic and Pulmonary

5 Serous membrane Continuous with blood vessels

6 Chambers of the heart; valves

7 Valves Control flow of blood from one chamber to another Prevent backflow

8 Blood supply to the heart Coronary artery and vein system Right and left coronary arteries branch off of aorta Branch into smaller vessels Cardiac veins deliver blood to coronary sinus, and back to the right atrium

9 Coronary Artery Disease Results when coronary arteries cannot deliver blood adequately Usual cause: plaques in arterial walls Angina pectoris (pain) when body is not receiving adequate oxygen Myocardial infarction (heart attack) when blood supply to heart is completely blocked; muscle dies

10 Coordination of chamber contraction, relaxation


12 Conduction system of the heart Heart contracts as a unit Atrial and ventricular syncytia help conduct electrical signals through the heart Sinoatrial (S-A) node is continuous with atrial syncytium S-A node cells can initiate impulses on their own; activity is rhythmic


14 Electrocardiogram (ECG) can trace conduction of electrical signals through the heart

15 Aberrant ECG patterns indicate damage

16 Regulation of the Cardiac Cycle Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems –Parasympathetic: from medulla oblongata (vagus nerve) Nerve branches to S-A and A-V nodes, and secretes acetylcholine (slows rate) Parasympathetic activity can increase (slow heart rate) or decrease (increase heart rate)

17 Regulation of the Cardiac Cycle Sympathetic nervous system through celiac plexus to heart –secretes norepinephrine –increases force of contractions Cardiac control center in medulla oblongata maintains balance between the two Normally both sympathetic and parasympathetic function at a steady background level


19 Regulation of the Cardiac Cycle Baroreceptors detect changes in blood pressure Rising pressure stretches receptors –Vagus nerve  parasympathetic system Increased temperature increases heart rate Ions and heart rate: –excess potassium decreases it –excess calcium increases it

20 Blood Pressure Blood flow is generally equal to cardiac output Blood flow affected by pressure and resistance Blood pressure: the force that is exerted by blood against blood vessel walls Resistance depends on size of blood vessel and thickness (viscosity) of blood

21 Blood Pressure Blood pressure is highest in large arteries –will rise and fall as heart pumps –highest with ventricular systole –lowest with ventricular diastole Resistance is highest in capillaries

22 More cellsConstriction of blood vessel walls

23 Control of Blood Pressure Regulation of cardiac output –contraction strength –heart rate –venous return skeletal muscles breathing rate


25 Hypertension Arterial pressure is too high Sometimes cause is unknown, or is secondary to disease Variety of causes/ risk factors are known –Sedentary lifestyle –Smoking –Obesity –Diet (excess sodium; cholesterol; calories in general) –Stress –Arteriosclerosis –Genetic factors

26 Effects of Hypertension Heart has to work harder Left ventricle enlarges Atherosclerosis may affect coronary arteries as well. Deficient blood supply to other parts of body Damage to blood vessels accumulates Heart failure

27 Why is exercise good for the heart? A trained heart is bigger, so… –pumps blood more efficiently (at a lower rate) –stroke volume increases (due to stronger contractions, allowing for lower rate) Other benefits: –higher aerobic capacity (contributing to efficiency) This takes training!

28 Blood Vessels Arteries and arterioles carry blood away from heart Capillaries- site of exchange Venules, veins- return blood to heart


30 Blood Vessels Endothelium- –prevents platelet aggregation and secretes substances that control diameter of blood vessel Tunica media- –smooth muscle and connective tissue –Innervated by sympathetic nerves –vasoconstriction Tunica externa- –connective tissue; is vascularized

31 Blood Vessels Capillaries most permeable (and more permeable in some parts than others) –Especially so in liver, spleen and red marrow Blood flow can vary to different parts of the body too

32 Blood Vessels- Return to the Venules are continuous with capillaries Veins have thinner walls: less muscle, but can hold much more blood Many veins in limbs have valves to prevent backflow –Varicose veins arise when pressure on valves is prolonged


34 See pp. 351- 359 for all circuits



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