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What are the overall functions of the cardiovascular system? What structures comprise the system? QOD.

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Presentation on theme: "What are the overall functions of the cardiovascular system? What structures comprise the system? QOD."— Presentation transcript:

1 What are the overall functions of the cardiovascular system? What structures comprise the system? QOD

2 Chapter 13 Cardiovascular System

3 I. Introduction  Structures –Heart –Arteries  Arterioles –Capillaries –Veins  Venules  Circuits –Pulmonary circuit –Systemic Circuit –Coronary Circuit

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5 13.2: Structure of the Heart  Coverings –Visceral pericardium –Parietal pericardium –Pericardial cavity – serous fluid  Wall of the heart –Epicardium –Myocardium –Endocardium  Purkinje fibers

6 How is the heart’s structure related to it’s function? QOD

7 Heart chambers and valves  Atria (Atrium)  Ventricles  Septum  Valves –Tricuspid –Bicuspid (Mitral) –Aortic –Pulmonary –Chordae tendinae –Papillary muscles

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9 Blood Vessels to and from Heart  Superior and Inferior Vena cavae  Cardiac veins –Coronary sinus  Pulmonary arteries  Pulmonary veins  Aorta  Coronary arteries

10 Pathway of Blood

11 How does the heart make sure to pump rhythmically and as a unit? QOD

12 13.3 Heart Actions The Cardiac Cycle  The Heartbeat –Atrial systole and ventricular diastole –Atrial diastole and ventricular systole –A-V valves open/close  Due to changes in pressure

13 Cardiac Cycle

14  Heart sounds –“Lubb” – ventricular contraction –“Dupp” – ventricular relaxation  Cardiac Muscle Fibers –Fibers connect in branching system –Functional syncytium  In atrial walls  In ventricular walls

15 Cardiac Conduction System  S-A node –Located in right atrium –Self-initiate impulses that stimulate cardiac muscle fibers to contract –Rhythmic - Pacemaker  A-V node –Located in interatrial septum (inferior) –Impulse is delayed –A-V bundle  Purkinje fibers  cardiac muscle fibers

16 Fig

17 Fig

18 Electrocardiogram  Waves of ECG –P wave –QRS complex –T wave  Uses: –Assessment of heart’s conduction of impulses –P-Q interval

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20 Fig a

21 Regulation of Cardiac Cycle  Medulla oblongata  Parasympathetic nerve fibers  Sympathetic nerve fibers  Hypothalamus  Temperature change  Ions –Potassium ions  Hyperkalemia/Hypokalemia –Calcium ions  Hypercalcemia/Hypocalcemia

22 Sympathetic nerve Sympathetic trunk Autonomic nerve impulses Slide number: 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cerebrum (coronal section) Medulla (transverse section) Spinal cord (transverse sections) Hypothalamus Cardiac center Parasympathetic vagus nerve S-A node A-V node Sensory fibers Carotid sinus Carotid baroreceptors Common carotid artery Aorta Aortic baroreceptors

23 What is atherosclerosis? Causes? Signs/symptoms? Treatments? QOD

24 13.4 Blood Vessels  Arteries –Strong, elastic, under high pressure –3 layers  Tunica interna  Tunica media  Tunica externa  Arterioles –Smaller –Get thinner as they get closer to…

25 Capillaries  Gas/nutrient exhchange –Openings –Semi-permeable –Concentration gradient –Filtration and hydrostatic pressure –Osmotic pressure  Smooth muscle – regulates blood distribution

26 Water and other substances leave capillaries because of a net outward filtration pressure Slide number: 2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Capillary Tissue cells Lymphatic capillary Blood flow from arteriole

27 Water and other substances leave capillaries because of a net outward filtration pressure Slide number: 3 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Capillary Tissue cells Lymphatic capillary Blood flow from arteriole Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure 41.3 mm Hg Inward force of osmotic pressure 28 mm Hg Net outward pressure 13.3 mm Hg Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure Net outward pressure Inward force of osmotic pressure = 41.3 mm Hg = 13.3 mm Hg = 28 mm Hg Net force at arteriolar end

28 Water and other substances leave capillaries because of a net outward filtration pressure Slide number: 4 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Capillary Tissue cells Lymphatic capillary Blood flow from arteriole Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure 41.3 mm Hg Inward force of osmotic pressure 28 mm Hg Net outward pressure 13.3 mm Hg Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure 21.3 mm Hg Inward force of osmotic pressure 28 mm Hg Net inward pressure 6.7 mm Hg Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure Net outward pressure Inward force of osmotic pressure = 41.3 mm Hg = 13.3 mm Hg = 28 mm Hg Net force at arteriolar end Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure Net inward pressure Inward force of osmotic pressure = 21.3 mm Hg = 6.7 mm Hg = 28 mm Hg Net force at venular end

29 Water and other substances leave capillaries because of a net outward filtration pressure Slide number: 5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Capillary Tissue cells Lymphatic capillary Blood flow to venule Blood flow from arteriole Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure 41.3 mm Hg Inward force of osmotic pressure 28 mm Hg Net outward pressure 13.3 mm Hg Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure 21.3 mm Hg Inward force of osmotic pressure 28 mm Hg Net inward pressure 6.7 mm Hg Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure Net outward pressure Inward force of osmotic pressure = 41.3 mm Hg = 13.3 mm Hg = 28 mm Hg Net force at arteriolar end Outward force, including hydrostatic pressure Net inward pressure Inward force of osmotic pressure = 21.3 mm Hg = 6.7 mm Hg = 28 mm Hg Net force at venular end

30 Veins  Venules  Veins –Thinner than arteries –Less smooth muscle –Valves –Act as blood reservoirs

31 How is blood pressure regulated? QOD

32 13.5: Blood Pressure  Arterial blood pressure: –Systolic pressure –Diastolic pressure –Pulse

33 Factors Influencing Blood Pressure  Heart action –Stroke volume –Cardiac output = heart rate x stroke volume  Blood volume  Peripheral resistance –Vasoconstriction/Vasidilation  Blood viscosity –Resistance

34 Control of Blood Pressure  Regulation of cardiac output –Baroreceptors –Medulla oblongata (cardiac center) –Kidneys –Exercise, body temp, fear/anger  Regulation of peripheral resistance –Vasomotor center

35 Venous Blood Flow  Lower blood pressure  Skeletal muscle contractions  Vasoconstriction


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