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1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 12 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 12 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. CHAPTER 12 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

2 2 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM THE HEART PUMPS BLOOD THROUGH A CLOSED SYSTEM OF BLOOD VESSELS. THE HEART PUMPS BLOOD THROUGH A CLOSED SYSTEM OF BLOOD VESSELS. ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM HEART INTO BODY TISSUE CAPILLARIES. ARTERIES CARRY BLOOD AWAY FROM HEART INTO BODY TISSUE CAPILLARIES. VEINS CARRY BLOOD FROM BODY TISSUE CAPILLARIES BACK TO HEART. VEINS CARRY BLOOD FROM BODY TISSUE CAPILLARIES BACK TO HEART. RED VESSELS CARRY OXYGENATED BLOOD. RED VESSELS CARRY OXYGENATED BLOOD. BLUE VESSELS CARRT DEOXYGENATED BLOOD. BLUE VESSELS CARRT DEOXYGENATED BLOOD.

3 3 THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

4 4 THE HEART IS A MUSCULAR PUMP LOCATED WITHIN THE THORACIC CAVITY BETWEEN THE LUNGS AND THE DIAPHRAGM. IS A MUSCULAR PUMP LOCATED WITHIN THE THORACIC CAVITY BETWEEN THE LUNGS AND THE DIAPHRAGM. IT IS COVERED BY A TOUGH FIBROUS SAC CALLED THE PERICARDIUM. IT IS COVERED BY A TOUGH FIBROUS SAC CALLED THE PERICARDIUM. THE HEART WALL IS MADE OF A THICK MUSCLE BETWEEN TWO MEMBRANES:- THE HEART WALL IS MADE OF A THICK MUSCLE BETWEEN TWO MEMBRANES:- ENDOCARDIUM – MYOCARDIUM - EPICARDIUM ENDOCARDIUM – MYOCARDIUM - EPICARDIUM

5 5 THE HEART LOCATION

6 6 THE HEART WALL STRUCTURE

7 7 THE HEART CHAMBERS THE HEART HAS FOUR CHAMBERS:- LEFT & RIGHT ATRIUM:- THE TWO UPPER CHAMBERS THAT RECEIVE THE BLOOD RETURNED TO THE HEART BY VEINS. LEFT & RIGHT ATRIUM:- THE TWO UPPER CHAMBERS THAT RECEIVE THE BLOOD RETURNED TO THE HEART BY VEINS. LEFT & RIGHT VENTRICLE:- THE TWO LOWER CHAMBERS THAT PUMP BLOOD INTO ARTERIES LEFT & RIGHT VENTRICLE:- THE TWO LOWER CHAMBERS THAT PUMP BLOOD INTO ARTERIES ATRIAL SEPTUM SEPARATE THE ATRIA. ATRIAL SEPTUM SEPARATE THE ATRIA. VENTRICULAR SEPTUM SEPARATE VENTRICLES. VENTRICULAR SEPTUM SEPARATE VENTRICLES. FIBROUS RING SEPARATE ATRIA & VENTRICLES FIBROUS RING SEPARATE ATRIA & VENTRICLES

8 8 THE HEART CHAMBERS

9 9 THE HEART BLOOD VESSELS CORONARY VESSELS:- SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE HEART STRUCTURES. CORONARY VESSELS:- SUPPLY BLOOD TO THE HEART STRUCTURES. AORTA:- CARRY BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INTO THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION. AORTA:- CARRY BLOOD FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INTO THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION. PULMONARY ARTERY:- CARRY BLOOD FROM THE RIGHT VENTRICLE INTO THE LUNGS. PULMONARY ARTERY:- CARRY BLOOD FROM THE RIGHT VENTRICLE INTO THE LUNGS. PULMONARY VEINS:- BRING BLOOD FROM THE LUNGS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM. PULMONARY VEINS:- BRING BLOOD FROM THE LUNGS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM. THE VENA CAVA:- BRING BLOOD FROM THE VEINS INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM. THE VENA CAVA:- BRING BLOOD FROM THE VEINS INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM.

10 10 THE HEART BLOOD VESSELS

11 11 THE HEART VALVES ALLOW BLOOD TO FLOW ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION FROM OR INTO THE HEART. ALLOW BLOOD TO FLOW ONLY IN ONE DIRECTION FROM OR INTO THE HEART. ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES {A-V VALVES} MITRAL {BICUSPID} VALVE:- LOCATED BETWEEN LEFT ATRIUM & L. VENTRICLE. MITRAL {BICUSPID} VALVE:- LOCATED BETWEEN LEFT ATRIUM & L. VENTRICLE. TRICUSPID VALVE:- LOCATED BETWEEN RIGHT ATRIUM & RIGHT VENTRICLE. TRICUSPID VALVE:- LOCATED BETWEEN RIGHT ATRIUM & RIGHT VENTRICLE. ALLOW BLOOD TO FLOW ONLY FROM EACH ATRIUM INTO EACH VENTRICLE. ALLOW BLOOD TO FLOW ONLY FROM EACH ATRIUM INTO EACH VENTRICLE.

12 12 THE HEART VALVES SEMILUNAR VALVES:- AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE:- LOCATED AT THE ENTERANCE OF THE AORTA. IT ALLOW BLOOD FLOW ONLY FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INTO THE AORTA. AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE:- LOCATED AT THE ENTERANCE OF THE AORTA. IT ALLOW BLOOD FLOW ONLY FROM THE LEFT VENTRICLE INTO THE AORTA. PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE:- LOCATED AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE PULMONARY ARTERY. IT ALLOW BLOOD FLOW ONLY FROM RIGHT VENTRICLE INTO PULMONARY ARTERY. PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE:- LOCATED AT THE ENTRANCE OF THE PULMONARY ARTERY. IT ALLOW BLOOD FLOW ONLY FROM RIGHT VENTRICLE INTO PULMONARY ARTERY.

13 13 THE HEART VALVES

14 14 THE HEART VALVES

15 15 HEART CONDUCTION SYSTEM IT IS SPECIALIZED MUSCLE TISSUE THAT FUNCTION LIKE NERVES BY GENERATING SPONTANOUS IMPULSES & TRANSMITING THEM TO THE HEART MUSCLE TO CAUSE CONTRACTION. CONSIST OF:- IT IS SPECIALIZED MUSCLE TISSUE THAT FUNCTION LIKE NERVES BY GENERATING SPONTANOUS IMPULSES & TRANSMITING THEM TO THE HEART MUSCLE TO CAUSE CONTRACTION. CONSIST OF:- SINOATRIAL {SA} NODE SINOATRIAL {SA} NODE ATRIOVENTRICULAR {AV} NODE ATRIOVENTRICULAR {AV} NODE ATRIOVENTRICULAR {AV} BUNDLE ATRIOVENTRICULAR {AV} BUNDLE PURKINJE FIBERS PURKINJE FIBERS

16 16

17 17 ELECTROCARDIOGRAM THE ORIGINATION & TRANSMISSION OF IMPULSES THROUGH THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART WILL GENERATE ELECTRICAL CURRENTS THAT CAN BE DETECTED BY ELECTRODES PLACED ON THE BODY SURFACE. THE ORIGINATION & TRANSMISSION OF IMPULSES THROUGH THE CONDUCTION SYSTEM OF THE HEART WILL GENERATE ELECTRICAL CURRENTS THAT CAN BE DETECTED BY ELECTRODES PLACED ON THE BODY SURFACE. AN ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH MACHINE IS USED TO TRANSFORM THE ELECTRICAL CURRENTS INTO A DRAWING CALLED ELECROCARDIOGRAM {ECG} OR {EKG} AN ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH MACHINE IS USED TO TRANSFORM THE ELECTRICAL CURRENTS INTO A DRAWING CALLED ELECROCARDIOGRAM {ECG} OR {EKG}

18 18 ELECTROCARDIOGRAM

19 19 ELECTROCARDIOGRAM THE IMPULSES ORIGINATE FROM THE SINOATRIAL {SA} NODE AND AS THEY ARE TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE HEART THEY GENERATE:- THE IMPULSES ORIGINATE FROM THE SINOATRIAL {SA} NODE AND AS THEY ARE TRANSMITTED THROUGH THE HEART THEY GENERATE:- P-WAVE:- DEPOLARIZATION OF ATRIA. P-WAVE:- DEPOLARIZATION OF ATRIA. QRS WAVE:- DEPOLARIZATION OF THE VENTRICLES. QRS WAVE:- DEPOLARIZATION OF THE VENTRICLES. T-WAVE:- REPOLARIZATION OF THE VENTRICLES. T-WAVE:- REPOLARIZATION OF THE VENTRICLES.

20 20

21 21 THE CARDIAC CYCLE RIGHT ATRIUM FILLED WITH VENOUS DEOXYGENATED BLOOD BY VENA CAVA. RIGHT ATRIUM FILLED WITH VENOUS DEOXYGENATED BLOOD BY VENA CAVA. LEFT ATRIUM FILLED WITH OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM BOTH LUNGS BY THE PULMONARY VEINS. LEFT ATRIUM FILLED WITH OXYGENATED BLOOD FROM BOTH LUNGS BY THE PULMONARY VEINS. ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES OPEN AND BLOOD FLOW FROM RIGHT ATRIUM INTO RIGHT VENTRICLE & FROM LEFT ATRIUM INTO LEFT VENTRICLE. ATRIOVENTRICULAR VALVES OPEN AND BLOOD FLOW FROM RIGHT ATRIUM INTO RIGHT VENTRICLE & FROM LEFT ATRIUM INTO LEFT VENTRICLE.

22 22 THE CARDIAC CYCLE LEFT VENTRICLE CONTRACTION CLOSE THE MITRAL VALVE, OPEN THE AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE AND EJECT BLOOD THROUGH THE AORTA INTO THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION. LEFT VENTRICLE CONTRACTION CLOSE THE MITRAL VALVE, OPEN THE AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE AND EJECT BLOOD THROUGH THE AORTA INTO THE SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION. RIGHT VENTRICLE CONTRACTION CLOSE TRICUSPID VALVE, OPEN PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE AND EJECT BLOOD THROUGH PULMONARY ARTERY INTO PULMONARY CIRCULATION. RIGHT VENTRICLE CONTRACTION CLOSE TRICUSPID VALVE, OPEN PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE AND EJECT BLOOD THROUGH PULMONARY ARTERY INTO PULMONARY CIRCULATION.

23 23 THE CARDIAC CYCLE

24 24 THE CARDIAC CYCLE

25 25 THE CARDIAC CYCLE

26 26 ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE:- HIGHEST BLOOD PRESSURE REACHED WHEN THE VENTRICLE ARE CONTRACTING. SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE:- HIGHEST BLOOD PRESSURE REACHED WHEN THE VENTRICLE ARE CONTRACTING. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE:- LOWEST BLOOD PRESSURE REACHED WHEN THE VENTRICLES ARE RELAXING. DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE:- LOWEST BLOOD PRESSURE REACHED WHEN THE VENTRICLES ARE RELAXING. PULSE PRESSURE:- THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC PRESSURES. PULSE PRESSURE:- THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC PRESSURES.

27 27 ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE

28 28 PULSE PRESSURE

29 29 REGULATION OF THE HEART DONE BY THE CARDIAC CENTER IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA OF THE BRAIN. DONE BY THE CARDIAC CENTER IN THE MEDULLA OBLONGATA OF THE BRAIN. SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES INCREASE THE HEART RATE & CONTRACTION FORCE BY SECRETING NOREPINEPHRINE. SYMPATHETIC IMPULSES INCREASE THE HEART RATE & CONTRACTION FORCE BY SECRETING NOREPINEPHRINE. PARASYMPATHETIC IMPULSES DECREASE ONLY THE HEART RATE BY SECRETING ACETYLCHOLINE. PARASYMPATHETIC IMPULSES DECREASE ONLY THE HEART RATE BY SECRETING ACETYLCHOLINE.

30 30 REGULATION OF THE HEART

31 31 THE BLOOD VESSELS AORTA > LARGE ARTERIES > SMALL ARTERIES > ARTERIOLES > CAPILLARIES AORTA > LARGE ARTERIES > SMALL ARTERIES > ARTERIOLES > CAPILLARIES CAPILLARIES > VENULES > SMALL VEINS > LARGE VEINS > VENA CAVA. CAPILLARIES > VENULES > SMALL VEINS > LARGE VEINS > VENA CAVA. ARTERIAL & VENOUS CAPILLARIES FORM CAPILLARY BEDS WHERE EXCHANGE OF NUTRIENTS & WASTE PRODUCTS OCCUR BETWEEN BLOOD AND BODY TISSUES. ARTERIAL & VENOUS CAPILLARIES FORM CAPILLARY BEDS WHERE EXCHANGE OF NUTRIENTS & WASTE PRODUCTS OCCUR BETWEEN BLOOD AND BODY TISSUES.

32 32 A CAPILLARY BED

33 33 SYSTEMIC ARTERIES

34 34 SYSTEMIC VEINS

35 35 ARTERIES SUPPLYING THE HEAD

36 36 VEINS DRAINING THE HEAD


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