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Introduction to Physical Science

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Physical Science"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Physical Science
Chapter 1 Introduction to Physical Science

2 Section 1: Objectives Explain that science involves asking questions.
Describe the relationship of matter and energy to physical science. Describe the two branches of physical science. Identify three areas of science that use physical science.

3 What Is Physical Science?
Science: a process of gathering knowledge about the natural world In order to solve a problem, we must first ask and then answer a question. This is the first step to the scientific method.

4 What is Physical Science?
Physical Science: study of matter and energy Matter is the “stuff” everything is made from. Energy is the ability to do work.

5 What is Physical Science?
Learning about Physical Science will help us answer everyday questions such as: Why will paper burn and gold will not? Why is throwing a bowling ball harder than throwing a baseball? How can water turn into steam and then back into water?

6 What is Physical Science?
Physical Science is divided into Physics and Chemistry. We can also divide these two areas further.

7 What is Physical Science?
Chemistry: study of all forms of matter; including how matter interacts with other matter Physics: Looks mostly at energy and the way that energy affects matter

8 What is Physical Science?
What you learn about matter and energy is beneficial in other science classes. Many of the same concepts extend from one branch of science to another.

9 What is Physical Science?
Meteorology is the study of the Earth’s atmosphere in relation to weather and climate. Jobs that involve meteorology include: Forecasting Aeronautical physics Tornado chasers

10 What is Physical Science?
Geology is the study of the origin, history, and structure of Earth. Some geologists are geochemists. Some geochemists specialize in the chemistry of rocks, minerals, and soil.

11 What is Physical Science?
Biology is the study of life, living organisms, and how all organisms relate and interact. Chemistry and Biology overlap in several concepts. An example of this would be photosynthesis. Photosynthesis occurs when plants chemically convert sunlight into energy.

12 Section 1: Review Questions
1) List and describe 3 areas of science that rely on physical science. 2) What 2 major areas can physical science be divided into? 3) What is the difference between Chemistry and Physics?

13 Section 2: Scientific Methods
The way in which scientists answer questions and solve problems are called scientific methods. Scientists don’t always have to follow the same steps in order to solve a problem.

14 Scientific Methods

15 Scientific Methods Asking a question helps focus the purpose of the investigation. An observation is any use of the senses to gather information. You should record observations throughout the entire experiment.

16 Scientific Methods Engineers ask questions all the time.
They ask questions in order to create better (more efficient) ways of doing things. Technology: application of science for practical purposes

17 Efficiency Example An example of efficiency that engineers study is in boats. Boat efficiency compares energy used to move the boat forward with energy supplied by the engine. Why would making boats more efficient be useful?

18 Scientific Methods Once you have asked a question, you are ready to formulate your hypothesis. Hypothesis = educated guess Hypothesis: explanation based on prior scientific research or observations that can be tested

19 Scientific Methods After you form a hypothesis, you must test it.
Why would you test your hypothesis?

20 Scientific Methods One way to test your hypothesis is to perform a controlled experiment. A controlled experiment tests one variable at a time. Why would this be important?

21 Scientific Methods Always collect any useful data while performing your experiment. Data: pieces of information acquired through observation or experimentation

22 Scientific Methods Once you have data, analyze it to find out whether it supports/rejects your hypothesis.

23 Scientific Methods At the end of an experiment, you must draw conclusions. Conclusions help explain why your hypothesis was supported or rejected.

24 Scientific Methods Results: what happened
Should support or reject your hypothesis. Conclusion: why it happened Do not restate results.

25 Scientific Methods After your experiment is completed, you should share your results/conclusions with other scientists. Why would this be important?

26 Section 2: Review Questions
1) Name the steps that can be used in the scientific method. 2) At what number of flaps/second is the boat most and least efficient? Why? 3) At what point does the efficiency neither increase nor decrease? How do you know?

27 Section 3: Objectives Explain how models represent the natural world.
Identify three types of models used in science. Describe theories and laws.

28 Section 3: Scientific Models
Model: representation of an object or system Scientific models serve many purposes. The main purpose is to visually represent something that is too large or too small.

29 Scientific Models There are three types of scientific models.
They include: Physical models Mathematical models Conceptual models

30 Scientific Models Examples include: Model airplanes Models of cells
DNA models How can physical models be useful?

31 Scientific Models Mathematical models are made up of equations and data. These allow you to calculate such things as force and acceleration.

32 Conceptual Models Conceptual models are basically systems or ideas.
The Big Bang Theory, which describes how galaxies and planets were formed, is one example.

33 Section 4: Objectives Explain the importance of the International System of Units. Identify the appropriate units used for particular measurements.

34 The SI System Precise measurements are very important in any branch of science. Examples include: Adding/subtracting chemicals Measuring distance between 2 objects Taking the mass of an object Converting measurements

35 The SI System In the late 1700s, the French Academy of Sciences began developing a world-wide system of units. Today most scientists and almost all countries use this system. One advantage of this system is that it helps scientists share and compare results.

36 The SI System Another advantage of the SI system is almost all units are based on the number 10. Basing most units on the number 10 makes conversions from one unit to another easier. Common measurements that SI units are used for include L, V, M, and Tem.

37 The SI System Length = meters (m) Area = square units (m^2)
Volume = liters (L) Mass = gram (g) Temperature = Fahrenheit (F), Celsius (C), and Kelvin (K)

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