2 What is Memory?Memory is the system by which we retain information and bring it to mind.Without memory, experience would leave no mark on our behavior; we would be unable to retain the information and skills we acquire through experience.
3 Human Memory as an Information Processing System 3 basic processes of human memory;EncodingStorageRetrievalThese processes allow us to take information, encode it in a form that can be stored in memory, and later retrieve it when it is needed.
4 Three Basic Processes of Memory EncodingStorageRetrievalConverting information into a form usable in memoryBringing to mind information stored in memoryRetaining Information in memory
5 Memory Encoding: Taking in information Information about the outside world comes to us through our senses, but for this information to enter memory, it must undergo a process of memory encoding, or conversion into a form we can store in memory.Ways we encode information;Acoustically (coded by sound)Visually (coded by forming a mental picture)Semantically (coded by meaning)
6 Memory Storage: Retaining Information in Memory Memory storage is the process of retaining information in memory.Not all information becomes an enduring or long-term memory.Some information is retained for only a fraction of a second.
7 Memory Retrieval: Accessing Stored Information Memory retrieval is the process of accessing stored information to make it available to consciousness.Retrieving long-held information is one of the marvels of the human brain.Some memories seem to be retrieved effortlessly, others depend on the availability of retrieval cues, cues associated with the original learning, to jog them into awareness.
8 Some memories are fleeting; others are more enduring. Memory StagesSome memories are fleeting; others are more enduring.The three-stage model of memory proposes three distinct stages of memory that vary with the length of time information is stored;Sensory memoryShort-term memoryLong-term memory
9 Sensory Memory: Getting to know what’s out there Sensory memory is a storage system that holds sensory information in memory for a very short time.Stimuli that you bring in constantly strike your sensory receptors, forming impressions that are briefly held in sensory memory in a kind of temporary storage device called sensory register.
10 Sensory Memory: Getting to know what’s out there This information lasts in memory for perhaps a fraction of a second to as long as 3-4 seconds.The sensory impression disappears and is replaced by the next one.Iconic memory- A sensory store for holding mental representation of a visual image for a fraction of a second.A visual held in iconic memory is so clear and accurate that people can report exact details of the image.
11 Sensory Memory: Getting to know what’s out there Some people can recall a visual image they have previously seen as accurately as if they are still looking at it. This is known as eidetic memoryThis is also known as photographic memory (eidetic comes from the Greek eidos, meaning “image”).Eidetic imagery is rare in adults, but it occurs in about 5% of young children.
12 Sensory Memory: Getting to know what’s out there Echoic memory is a sensory store for holding a mental representation of a sound for a few seconds after it registers in the ears.Although sounds held in echoic memory fade quickly, they last about two or three seconds longer than visual images.
13 Short-Term, or Working, Memory: the mind’s Blackboard Many sensory impressions don’t just fade away into oblivion; they are transferred into short-term memory for further processing.Short-term memory is the memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of newly acquired information for a maximum of about 30 seconds.
14 Short-Term, or Working, Memory: the mind’s Blackboard Short-term memory relies on both acoustic and visual coding, but mostly on acoustic (ex. Repeating a phone number to yourself until you dial it).In the 1950s psychologist George Miller did studies to determine the storage capacity if short-term memory.Professor Miller determined that people can retain 7 items (plus or minus 2), referred to as the “Magic 7”.
29 Short-Term, or Working, Memory: the mind’s Blackboard Did you do better remembering the 7th row than the 5th or 6th?If you did, it is because of chunking- the process of breaking a large amount of information into smaller chunks to make it easier to recall.Children learn the alphabet by chunking a series if letters (that’s why they often say the letters lmnop as if they are one word)
30 Long-Term Memory: preserving the past Long-term memory is a storage system that allows you to retain information for periods of time beyond the capacity of short-term memory.Some info can remain for days or weeks, whereas other info can last a lifetime.Short-term memory storage is limited, but long-term storage is virtually limitless.
31 Long-Term Memory: preserving the past Consolidation is the process by which the brain converts unstable, fresh memories into stable, long-term memories.The first 24 hours after information is acquired are critical for consolidation to occur.REM sleep plays an important role in consolidating daily experiences, so if you have a test the next day, make sure you get a good night’s sleep.
32 Declarative memory: “knowing That” Declarative Memory: Memory of facts and personal info that requires a conscious effort to bring to mind.Ex. There are 50 states, what street we live on.Semantic Memory: Memory of facts.Ex. Which film won Best Picture last year, who wrote Grapes of Wrath.Episodic Memory: Memory of personal experiences that constitute the story of your life.Ex. What you had for dinner last night, when you fell out of a tree when you were 10.
34 Flashbulb Memory: What were you doing when…? Extremely stressful or emotionally arousing personal or historical events may leave vivid, lasting, and highly detailed memories called flashbulb memories.Flashbulb memories are enduring memories of emotionally charged events that seem permanently seared into the brain.Some flashbulb memories are accurate, but others are prone to the kinds of distortion we see in other forms of long-term memory.
36 Eyewitness testimony: :What did you see on the day in question?” In reaching a verdict, juries give considerable weight to eyewitness testimony. Yet memory researchers find that eyewitness testimony can be as flawed and strewn with error as other forms of memory.Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus describes how a misinformation effect may lead to distortions in eyewitness testimony from when the event happened to when the events are recalled (in court).
37 Eyewitness testimony: :What did you see on the day in question?” The accuracy of eyewitness testimony involves the following factors.Ease of recall- People who take longer to answer questions are less likely to be accurate in their recall.Degree of Confidence- People who say with certainty, “That’s the person who did it, “ may not be any more accurate than those who admit they could be mistaken.
38 Eyewitness testimony: :What did you see on the day in question?” General knowledge about a subject- People who know more about a subject are more likely than those who know less about the subject to be reliable witnesses.Racial identification- People are generally better able to recognize faces of people of their own race than the face of people of other races.
39 Eyewitness testimony: :What did you see on the day in question?” Types of questions- Leading or suggestive questions by investigators can result in the misidentification of perpetrators, whereas open-ended questions, tend to increase the accuracy of eyewitness testimony.Facial characteristics- Faces with distinctive features are much more likely to be accurately recognized than nondistinctive faces.
40 Using Mnemonics to Improve Memory A mnemonic is a device for improving memory.The word mnemonic is derived from the name of the Greek goddess Mnemosyne, the goddess of memory.These are some of the most widely used mnemonic devices.
41 Acronyms and Acrostics The method of acronyms (also called the first letter system) is among the easiest and most widely used mnemonic devices.An acronym is a word composed of the first letters of a series of words.The acronym HOMES can help you remember the names of the Great Lakes (Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, Superior)Ex. ROY G. BIV or PEMDAS
42 Acronyms and Acrostics An acrostic is a verse or saying in which a letter of each word, typically the first letter, stands for something else.Generations of musicians have learned the lines of the treble clef (E, G, B, D, and F) by committing to memory the acrostic “Every Good Boy Does Fine.”Ex. Please Excuse My Dear Aunt Sally
43 Popular Sayings and Rhymes Popular sayings and poems help us remember a variety of things, including when to turn the clock forward or back (“Fall back, spring forward”).Rhymes can be used as a mnemonic for remembering specific information.Ex. “Thirty days hath September, April, June, and November…” for remembering the number of days in each month.
44 Visual Cues and Imagery Visual cues can help us remember to remember.When you remember to do something, pin a reminder note where you will be most likely to notice it.Visual imagery can help us remember new words, names, and word combinations.Ex. To remember hippocampus, think of a hippopotamusMemory expert Harry Lorayne recommended linking imagery to tasks that need to be remembered.Ex. If you want to remember to mail a letter, picture the letter on the handle of the front door. Seeing the front door handle may cue you to take the letter to the mailbox.
45 General Suggestions for Improving Memory Pay attention- Paying attention not only means focusing more closely on the material at hand; it also means placing yourself in a quiet area that is conducive to studying and free of distractions (no tv, radio, phone, etc.)Practice, practice, practice- Repeating information out loud or silently can help convert it from short-term memory into a more enduring long-term memory.
46 General Suggestions for Improving Memory Use External Memory Aids- Writing a reminder note to yourself will allow you to expend your mental efforts more profitably on something else.Other types of notes, such as class notes, are tools that you can use to retain more information.External memory aids, such as electronic organizers and computerized to-do lists, may also be helpful.
47 General Suggestions for Improving Memory Link Time-Based Tasks to External Cues- For example, if you need to take medication in the early evening, link it with having dinner.Mentally Rehearse What You Intend to Do- Rehearsing what you plan to do may in crease the likelihood of performing the intended action. Ex. “I intend to pick up my clothes from the dry cleaners today.”
48 General Suggestions for Improving Memory Control Stress- Though we may need some level of stress to remain active and alert, prolonged or intense stress can interfere with the transfer of new learning into long-term memory.Adopt Healthy Habits- Adopting a healthier lifestyle, such as a healthy diet, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, and exercising regularly, may help enhance your memory.
49 General Suggestions for Improving Memory Avoid eating a large meal before cracking open your textbook (eating facilitates a restful mood and digestion, not mental alertness).Also, avoid studying on an empty stomach.Using alcohol and other drugs does not mix with the mental alertness needed to learn and retain information.Make sure you get enough sleep.