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Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)  Mozart was born in Salzburg on 27 January 1756.  From the age of four, Mozart began to study keyboard and composition.

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Presentation on theme: "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)  Mozart was born in Salzburg on 27 January 1756.  From the age of four, Mozart began to study keyboard and composition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 – 1791)  Mozart was born in Salzburg on 27 January 1756.  From the age of four, Mozart began to study keyboard and composition from his father.  Mozart became famous from a very young age. Following employment in Salzburg as Konzertmeister to the archbishop, Mozart moved to Vienna in 1781 where he spent the rest of his life as a composer and performer.  Despite his relatively short life of thirty-five years, his musical output was vast and included famous operas such as Le Nozze di Figaro (1786), Don Giovanni (1787), Cosi fan tutte (1790) and Die Zauberflote (1791).  He produced 21 piano concertos, 5 violin concertos, 4 horn concertos, concertos for clarinet and other wind instruments, 41 symphonies, 27 string quartets, 6 string quintets and 17 Masses, including his last work, the incomplete Requiem Mass of 1791.  The work was completed after his death by Franz Sussmayr, one of his pupils. Mozart died in Vienna on 5 December 1791.

2 Standard Classical Orchestra StringsWoodwindBrassPercussion ViolinsFlutes (2)Trumpets (2)Timpani ViolasOboes (2) French horns (2) CellosClarinets (2) Double basses Bassoons (2)

3 Background to Symphony No. 40 in G minor This great symphony is written in the key of G minor and the melancholy feel of this key pervades the first movement, although the other movements are lighter in mood. The work comprises the usual four movements, but what is slightly unusual is that Mozart uses sonata form to structure the first, second and fourth movements. The third movement is the usual minuet and trio. Each movement is varied in terms of tempo, as shown below. First MovementSecond MovementThird MovementFourth Movement Fast tempo usually written in Sonata Form Slow Tempo, various forms used, including Ternary, Theme and Variations Minuet and TrioFast, written in Rondo, Sonata Form (combination of both) or set of variations

4 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 1 – 5 5 last crotchet to 9 9 last crotchet to 20 First Subject (bars 1 – 20) First point to note is there is no Introduction Bars 1-3: repeated idea (the first three notes become an important motif used throughout the movement) with an upward leap of a sixth balanced by bars 3 (last crotchet)-5 a descending stepwise pattern (two quavers/crotchet). 1 st and 2 nd violins playing in octaves marked piano (rare in these days) Violas are playing (divisi) divided in a quaver pattern and on-beat crotchet bass notes in the basses. This is a sequence (down one tone) of bars 1-4 Second part of theme - a repeated crotchet idea outlining chords V (bars 10 and 12) and chord I and Ib (bars 11 and 13 respectively). Bars 14-16: woodwind enter playing a two-bar continuation in octaves (no oboes). Bars 16-20: strong repeated woodwind chords with strings playing D octaves, which forms a dominant pedal. Following this point of repose on chord V (dominant) the first subject is repeated, but modified as we start the bridge passage. G minor

5 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 20 - 27 28-44 30-33 34-37 38-43 Bridge Passage (bars 20 -44) First subject repeated but altered at bars 24-27 to modulate to the relative major (B ♭ ). Notice the lack of F ♯ s. Oboes and bassoons provide sustained wind chords as 'harmonic filling' to the texture. There is a perfect cadence in the key of B ♭ (bars 27-28). This is a robust forte passage in the relative major key of B ♭ for full orchestra. Horns enter for the first time at bar 28. There is a bold theme in the violins outlining triads in the key of B ♭. For most of this passage the bassoon doubles the string basses. Good example of one-bar descending sequences in the violins. Strong sforzando chords for full orchestra which leads to Five bars of dominant pedal (F). This dominant harmony prepares for the second subject at 44. This entry is dramatically heralded by a one-bar rest! G minor B ♭ Major

6 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 44-51 50-51 52-58 58-66 Second Subject (bars 44 – 72) This theme in the relative major is shared between the strings and woodwind. It is much more relaxed (notice the piano dynamics) and reduced instrumentation. The use of semitones is a characteristic of the graceful pathetique mood of second subject (see bars 44-5 and 48-9). The falling figures at bars 44-45 and 48-51 help to conjure up the mood of sighing. Chromatic descent was always used to feature grief and sadness in music. Perfect cadence in B ♭ major followed by a one-bar link (bar 51) before the theme is repeated. This time the string and woodwind (without oboes) parts change round as they play the theme. The theme is extended by a series of one-bar sequences at bars 58- 61. The harmony here is a dominant 7th chord in the key of A ♭ major, although we never reach this key as the music surges and crescendos as the bass moves up chromatically so that we have chords lc-V7-l in B ♭ major at bars 64-66 B ♭ major

7 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 66 - 72A new six-bar idea is heard in unison violins (see below). It is made up of chromatically ascending quavers and a rhythmic element at bars 68-69 and a scalic descent from bars 70-72. This feature is used later in the movement and can be thought of as a second part of the second subject. The section ends with a perfect cadence in B ♭ major (bars 71-72) B ♭ major

8 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used Throughout 73-88 88-100 CODETTA (bars 73-100) This section is based on the opening three notes of the first subject. The idea is passed from clarinet to bassoon. During this passage, the upper strings (violins) have just the first two notes of this idea in minims (doubling or more the original note values is called augmentation) in canon with the lower strings (violas, cellos and basses). Following a perfect cadence in B ♭ at bars 79-80, this is then repeated, except that the bassoon comes in first. This ends at bar 88. These last few bars are one long extended perfect cadence in B ♭ (see bars 90-91, 94-95, 95-96, 96-97 etc). This is also a good example of homophonic texture. Bar 100: a dominant 7th chord in G minor is used as a pivot to link back to bar 1 for a repeat of the exposition. The repeat ensures that: a) the section balances in terms of bars with the final recapitulation section b) the listener is familiar with the two main subjects of the work. B ♭ major G minor

9 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used Throughout 101-114 DEVELOPMENT (bars 101-164) The music of the whole development section is based entirely on the opening figure of the first subject. Bars 101-105: following a single G minor chord, a chromatic chord G ♯ -B-D-F (diminished 7th) chord leads to a woodwind chordal and scalic descent in the remote key of F ♯ minor during which the theme enters in the violins. Bars 103-114: first four bars of first subject is played four times in octaves in the violins. Each time the melody is heard at a lower pitch (descending sequences). The essential difference is that the harmony is now chromatic. Look at the descending chromatic chords in the bassoons (bars 107-114) for example. F ♯ minor

10 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 114 - 138 At bars 114-115 the music resolves into the key of E minor (V-l) and now the violas, cellos and bassoons enter with the theme, whilst at the same time the upper strings play a new quaver tune called a counter-melody. Notice how this new melody is staccato to help make it stand out against the legato theme. The role of the woodwind (except bassoons) is to provide chordal harmonic support during this long passage up to bar 132. The horns add sustained semibreves and minims at points when the woodwind enter to thicken the musical texture. At bar 118, the music modulates to A minor and the melodies switch around with the counter melody now in the violas, cellos and bassoon with the theme in octaves in the violins. D minor is reached at bar 120. A further switch around happens at 122, now in G minor (last ; crotchet), then to C major at bar 124 and then again parts switch at bar 126 (last crotchet) now in F major. B ♭ major is reached at bar 128. Notice that each time we go up in a rising sequence by four notes, Em-Am-Dm-Gm-C-F-B ♭ ! Constant exploration of different keys is a major feature of the development section. Bars 134-138: repeated A in bassoons violas and cellos form a dominant pedal (in D minor). The repeated As in the violins add to the effect. E minor A minor D minor – G minor – C major – F major – B ♭ major – D minor

11 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 139 - 164 In this section, texture is reduced as the three notes of the first subject are used as a motif (a short melodic idea of just a few notes) that is passed around between the woodwind and strings creating a dialogue effect. During this passage various pedals are used, such as F (dominant of B ♭ minor) at bars 140-142, G (dominant of C minor) at bar 143 and D (dominant of G minor the tonic key) in the horns at bars 153-160 where it is taken on by the bassoons up to the start of the recapitulation. The section from bar 153 to 160 is a strong forte passage with powerful dialogue based on the three-note motif between upper and lower strings, whereas the following bars up to the start of the recapitulation are hushed and expectant. Tension is provided by the dominant pedal D, which finally resolves to a tonic G at bar 166.

12 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used Throughout 164-184 (first subject) 184-227 (bridge passage ) RECAPITULATION (bars 164-299) The recapitulation is not just a direct repeat of the exposition. The bridge passage is extended and the coda is far more developed as we shall see. First subject in tonic key of G minor. This is exactly the same as in the exposition at bars 1-20. This is much extended into a passage of some 51 bars, as opposed to 24 bars in the exposition. The purpose of the bridge section in the exposition is to take the music from the tonic to dominant key in preparation for the second subject. This is not necessary here as the second subject will be in the tonic key. So, Mozart indulges in some further development of the thematic material. The bridge is needed to provide structural balance to the form as a whole - a Classical ideal! Bars 184-191: the theme starts the same but almost immediately modulates to the key of E ♭ major. Look at the A ♭ s appearing from bar 185. A perfect cadence in that key can be seen at bars 190-191. Bars 191-227: during this section for full orchestra we hear the strong forte idea heard in the exposition. We hear the theme spilt between upper and lower strings in alternating passages G minor E ♭ Major

13 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 227-260 (second subject) Unlike at bar 28 onwards of the exposition, we now have added a quaver bass counter melody to go against the theme. Look at bars 191-197 and you can see the theme in the violins with the counter melody in bassoons, violas and cellos. Bars 198-211: the parts swap over. The theme is now in violas, cellos and bassoon, with the counter melody in violins. Music modulates throughout this short passage to F minor (bar 198), E ♭ major (bar 205) and reaching the home key at bar 211. Bars 211-227 are like bars 28-43 of the exposition, except of course that we remain in the tonic key for the entry of the second subject at bar 227. Bars 221-225: dominant pedal note of D sounding in the cellos, horns and bassoons in anticipation of the second subject. The one bar rest at 226 adds to the drama of expectation! Bars 227-241: the second subject is now stated in the tonic key of G minor. The theme here (as in the exposition) is shared between the woodwind and strings. As before, the musical texture and dynamics are reduced. Bars 241-245: this short section is an extension in which the music modulates to B ♭ major. Notice the dominant pedal in this key (B ♭ ) at bars 241-245 in the cellos and horns. Bars 245-251: rising one-bar sequences. Look at the bass notes: B ♭ -B ♮ -D ♭ -D ♮ - E ♭ -E ♮ ! Bars 252-254: perfect cadence of Ic-V-l in G minor leads to Bars 254-260: the rising form of the theme heard at bars 66-72 in the exposition, but now in G minor. F minor - E ♭ Major – G minor B ♭ major G minor

14 Bar Numbers and timing AnalysisKeys Used 260-276 276-299 293-299 CODA (bars 260-299) The three-note motif from the first subject is passed between the clarinet, bassoon and flute, whilst the first violins exchange the first two notes of the motif in augmentation with the violas and cellos. This section is rounded off with a perfect cadence in G minor at bars 275-276. This starts off as a scalic flourish building to the expected final cadence. However this forte passage is suddenly interrupted with some piano woodwind chords at bar 285 during which we hear glimpses of the first subject in the second violins, then first violins at bar 287, cellos at bar 289, then flute, clarinets and bassoons at bar 291. The final 'tutti' homophonic reiteration of a series of chords I and V in G minor ending with four emphatic full stops (G minor chords). This last section of six bars corresponds to the last six bars of the exposition! G minor

15 Augmentation doubling (or more) of the original note values Chromatically moving by semitones up or down Pathetique literally 'pathetic', refers to a melancholy mood Semitone half a tone - the distance between a white note and an adjacent black note on a keyboard Sinfonia an Italian form in origin, these were works in three sections for strings and continuo Glossary

16 Text taken from Edexcel GCSE Music – John Arkell, Jonny Martin Pearson Education Ltd. 2009

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