2Gen. Toussaint Louverture ( ), son of the king of Arrada (Benin), captured in war and sold into slavery. Leader of the Haitian Revolution
3Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806), later named himself Emperor Jacques I of Haiti
4Nat Turner ( ) led a slave rebellion that resulted in the death of 60 whites and 100 blacks (+ 56 executed and 200 lynched)
5Olaudah Equiano](c – 31 March 1797), African slave who after buying his freedom got involved in the British movement for the abolition of slavery. His autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano (1789), influenced the enactment of the Slave Trade Act of 1807.
6Frederick Douglass ( ) Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, An American Slave (1845) The Slave Hero (1853), on Madison Washington the instigator of the revolt aboard the Creole (1841)
7William Edward Burghardt Du Bois ( ), historian, civil rights activist, Pan-Africanist: “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color-line” (1900, at the Pan African Conference in Paris)
8Aimé Césaire, Martinique, , Poeta surrealista, uomo politico comunista, autore tra l’altro di Discours sur le colonialisme (1950), Une tempête (1968)
9Frantz Fanon (1925-1961), Peau noire, masques blancs (1952), Les Damnés de la terre (1961)