Presentation on theme: "Numerous revolutions arise as a result of external influences and internal conflicts. Inspired by previous independent movements in America and France."— Presentation transcript:
Numerous revolutions arise as a result of external influences and internal conflicts. Inspired by previous independent movements in America and France as well as the dissatisfaction of French rule, St. Domingue became the second independent nation in the Americas. Thesis Statement:
Haiti was dominated by a small class of European whites who had superiority over all other groups, including slaves and free blacks. The poor treatment of the lower classes and the limitation of their rights by the white leaders lead to several rebellions in Haiti, the Haitian Revolution being the most successful. Lower classes became inspired by the French Revolution and took the opportunity of the turmoil in France to stage a rebellion as well.
Role of Foreign Interventions France - controlled St. Domingue or as known today, Haiti Produced 40% of France’s foreign trade Supplied two-fifths of the world’s sugar and half of the world’s coffee -French Revolution in 1789 Declaration of Rights of Men (proclaimed all men as free) Desire for independences: France imposed steep tariffs on imported goods and forbidden the colony to trade with other foreign nations Wealthy whites (grand blancs) wanted to create trade regulations that would further their own wealth and power Wealthy men of color (mulattos) wanted the rights to votes
Role of Foreign Interventions: - Great Britain Grand blancs granted British rule over St. Domingue France declared war on Great Britain and its ally, Spain Gained control over major seaports Increased tension between the British and the mulattos and gens de coleur (slaves) Negotiated peace with Toussiant L’Ouverture in 1798 in exchange for trading rights and not to send revolutionary expeditions to British possessions - United States Agreed to crease trade in arms but continued trade for legal goods Southern colonies aided with the French in fear slave rebellion
The most famous leader of the Haitian Revolution was Toussaint L’Ouverture. He began his military career as a leader of the French colony Saint Domingue. His military experience and ability to make good judgments had worked in Haiti’s favor. Under his leadership, he was able to lead Haiti to independence. L’Ouverture had completely transformed Haiti by turning a once slave dominated society into a free and self governing society. In 1801, L’Ouverture created an autonomist constitution for Haiti. In addition, he had declared himself governor for life. Despite his desire to be governor, he was forced to resign in 1802. The Haitian Revolution was then continued by Jean- Jaques Dessalines (L’Ouverture’s lieutenant) who declared independence in 1804.. Being that Haiti was so successful in their fight for independence, the revolution had invigorated anti-slavery ideas all throughout the New World. Due to L’Ouvertures dedication to Haiti, the revolution is regarded as a defining moment for Africans in the New World.
Economy: Went bankrupt-disturbance of economic system plus being barred from trade with other countries made Haiti extremely poor Focused on circulation of goods in the states, not exportation Middle class didn’t exist-large gap between rich and poor Went from plantation system to system based on small-scale producers
Socially: Slaves were freed, and actually took over control of the island Roles flipped: whites were persecuted, were almost unable to own land or participate in government-many left for Canada or the US Other slave nations in the area were persuaded to attempt a revolt themselves Mulattos became the elite, because many of them received education pre-revolt from parents
Politically: Achieved autonomy (from France) Became a country of poor ruled by a king and the wealthy elite First free black nation in the world Became the second fully independent state in the Western Hemisphere
Video Clip: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b69l S3aP1a4 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b69l S3aP1a4
Choose one social class in Haiti that existed during the time of the Haitian Revolution in 1791-1803 and compare their social status in Haiti before and after the war. -wealthy landowners -slaves -free Africans -mulattoes
What was a major cause of the Haitian Revolution? A.The economic distress in the colony lead to civil unrest. B.The start of a revolution in France encouraged increased action by lower classes against their leaders. C.The government of the colony began to infringe upon the rights of the people which caused dissention. D.Principles used in the American Revolution inspired the wish among the people of Haiti for freedom from their mother country of France