Types of Nouns Proper : Mr. D., Dr. Smith-Jones, Elmira, Brubacher Street, Denmark Common: car, student, building, flower Concrete: desk, food Abstract: hope, disappointment, hunger
Pronoun Replaces a noun: Personal pronouns: He (third person) might replace Jake (antecedent) she – Jenna it – textbook they – the band I (first person) we You (second person)
Indefinite pronouns Anybody, anyone, anything Everybody, everything Nobody, nothing Somebody, someone, something Both, few, many, several All, any most, none, some
Verb The action of the sentence Action (jump, sing) State of being ( am, feel, appear) Can have more than one part: a helper verb and an action verb ( will study) Can link the subject to a modifier She was irritated.
Preposition Positioned before a noun to connect it to the sentence Go to the office.
Conjunction Connects two clauses, phrases or like sentence parts together You need a healthy diet, and you also need exercise.
Expressers Interjection Expresses emotion Ouch! That hurt. Oh! How lovely! Blimey! I forgot my essay.
PARTS OF A SENTENCE Subject Predicate Object Phrase Clause
Subject The someone/something that does something in a sentence; this someone/something in a sentence’s main clause is called the bare subject Who or what the sentence is about The actor in the sentence
Predicate What the subject is, or what the subject did Everything other than the subject The main verb (the action that the someone/something is doing) in the predicate is called the bare predicate
Example My best friend plays guitar. Subject predicate.
Direct Object Receives the action of the main verb
Example Josh threw the ball to Amanda. Direct object indirect object
Phrases and Clause Phrase does not have its own subject and verb into the forest Clause has its own subject and verb the children ran
Example The children ran into the forest. phraseclause
Phrase A group of words in a sentence that acts grammatically as a part of speech It cannot stand alone as a sentence because it has neither a subject or a predicate
Main Clause A group of words with a subject and a predicate that contain the main subject and the main verb (bare predicate) of the entire sentence It can be joined to another clause with a coordinating conjunction (remember FANBOYS) or stand alone as a complete sentence
Subordinate Clause A clause that begins with a subordinate conjunction, making it less important than the main clause in the same sentence It cannot stand alone as a sentence
Example I went to the dentist because my tooth hurt. Main clause subordinate clause
Relative Clause A clause that begins with a relative pronoun such as who, that, or which that cannot be separated from the word or phrase it relates to. The student who meets deadlines is successful.
TYPES OF SENTENCES Simple Compound Complex Compound-complex
Simple One subject and one verb ( one main clause) John built the house.
Compound Two or more main clauses I knocked at the door and rang the doorbell, but no one seemed to hear me.
Complex One main and one or more subordinate clauses When we returned, the fire was out.
Compound-Complex Two or more main clauses, and one or more subordinate clauses I dropped my napkin, and I spilled my drink while the speaker was proposing a toast.