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Presentation on theme: "Injections."— Presentation transcript:

1 Injections

2 Vocabulary Injection: To introduce a substance into the body of an animal or plant by mechanical means Intramuscular: Within the muscles Gauge: A scale of measurement (smaller the gauge, bigger the needle, 16 vs 24) Subcutaneous: Situated or occurring beneath the skin. A sub Q injection is put just under the skin. Intravenous: Into a vein or veins

3 Vocabulary Peritoneal Cavity: Abdominal lining that contains digestive organs of the animal Intraperitoneal: Within the cavity of the body that contains the stomach and intestines Rumen: Largest compartment of the stomach of cattle, sheep and goats. Bacterial fermentation occurs here Intraruminal: Into the rumen Udder infusion: Into the udder, through teat.

4 Intramuscular Intra: means into and the suffix after means where. So intranasal would be into the nasal cavity, intrauterine would be into the uterus, etc. Intramuscular (IM): Most common type of injection (absorbed quickly) Given into any muscle that is large enough to accommodate the amount of fluid being injected Usually injected into the large muscles such as those in the thigh, rump or neck. Inject in neck of market animals. Prevents loss of meat.

5 Intramuscular Proper technique involves –
Choosing the proper size and gauge needle Usually 1-1 ½” long needle 16-18 gauge are most frequent Filling syringe: Read directions. Sometimes you need to shake the bottle Insert through rubber portion of medicine bottle Pull back plunger, allow to fill to desired amount Pull needle out. Put syringe upright to tap out air.

6 Intramuscular Giving Injection: Restrain animal
Clean injection sight with antiseptic Hold syringe by the hub with thumb and index finger, with needle pointing downwards Light slapping momentarily numbs area. Tap 2-3 times then insert needle at 45-degree angle firmly into the animal’s muscle on the next tap. Pull back to make sure the needle is not in an artery or vein Inject slowly. Remove directly and quickly to not stress animal or further hurt animal.

7 Intramuscular Precautions:
Make sure you read directions. Wrong delivery could possibly kill animal Large amounts of dosage should be spread to more than one site Cattle: up to ml Horses: up to 10-15 Swine: up to 10-15 Sheep/Goat: up to 5-10


9 Subcutaneous Subcutaneous (Sub Q):
Fluid is deposited directly beneath the skin. Medication is absorbed slower than IM or OV. Used for hormone and some drugs. Easier to make injection where there are folds in the skin. Side of neck in cattle and horses Behind the ear in swine Upper leg in sheep Proper technique includes: Correct gauge, usually 20-25, 5/8-1” needle, and cleanliness

10 Subcutaneous Giving injection: Restrain animal
Grasp skin firmly between thumb and forefinger, and then thrust needle firmly and quickly through all angles of skin and at a relatively flat angle. Pull plunger back to make sure not in vein Administer slowly, remove needle, and massage injection site. This hastens the absorption of the medicine and prevents leakage from the injection site. Slight bulge evident under skin.

11 Subcutaneous Precautions: Same as IM
If in muscle, large swelling or abscess can result Volume of solution tat may be injected into one site: Cattle: ml Swine: 30ml Sheep/Goat: 2-30ml


13 Intravenous Intravenous (IV):
Fluid injected directly into bloodstream, bypassing absorption site Most difficult to administer. Administered in the jugular of large animals, ear in rabbits and pigs, front leg in cats and dogs Proper Technique: Restrain animal Choose proper size needle (18-20 gauge, 1-1 ½” needle) Shaving hair from injection site is a good practice and should be followed by disinfecting the skin

14 Intravenous Giving the Injection:
Inject very slowly as they take into effect immediately Injection made by constricting vein and causing vein to swell. Digital pressure 2/3 way down from injection site to obstruct blood flow into one area. Vein is immediately obvious between thumb and restriction. Stroke to make more apparent if needed. With bevel point of needle pointed up insert at 30 degree angle into vein, blood will enter syringe. Undo obstructions and slowly inject.

15 Intravenous Precautions:
Most dangerous to perform, should be done by experienced persons Drug action takes place in seconds after injection


17 Injections Other types of injections: Intraperitoneal (IP):
Made through abdominal lining Difficult to administer properly and requires complete restraint Intraruminal (IR): Made through left flank region into rumen Used in sheep and cattle to relieve bloat (Trokar also) Udder Infusion Used in dairy cattle especially to prevent and treat mastitis Injected through teat



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