2 VocabularyInjection: To introduce a substance into the body of an animal or plant by mechanical meansIntramuscular: Within the musclesGauge: A scale of measurement (smaller the gauge, bigger the needle, 16 vs 24)Subcutaneous: Situated or occurring beneath the skin. A sub Q injection is put just under the skin.Intravenous: Into a vein or veins
3 VocabularyPeritoneal Cavity: Abdominal lining that contains digestive organs of the animalIntraperitoneal: Within the cavity of the body that contains the stomach and intestinesRumen: Largest compartment of the stomach of cattle, sheep and goats. Bacterial fermentation occurs hereIntraruminal: Into the rumenUdder infusion: Into the udder, through teat.
4 IntramuscularIntra: means into and the suffix after means where. So intranasal would be into the nasal cavity, intrauterine would be into the uterus, etc.Intramuscular (IM):Most common type of injection (absorbed quickly)Given into any muscle that is large enough to accommodate the amount of fluid being injectedUsually injected into the large muscles such as those in the thigh, rump or neck.Inject in neck of market animals. Prevents loss of meat.
5 Intramuscular Proper technique involves – Choosing the proper size and gauge needleUsually 1-1 ½” long needle16-18 gauge are most frequentFilling syringe:Read directions. Sometimes you need to shake the bottleInsert through rubber portion of medicine bottlePull back plunger, allow to fill to desired amountPull needle out. Put syringe upright to tap out air.
6 Intramuscular Giving Injection: Restrain animal Clean injection sight with antisepticHold syringe by the hub with thumb and index finger, with needle pointing downwardsLight slapping momentarily numbs area. Tap 2-3 times then insert needle at 45-degree angle firmly into the animal’s muscle on the next tap. Pull back to make sure the needle is not in an artery or veinInject slowly. Remove directly and quickly to not stress animal or further hurt animal.
7 Intramuscular Precautions: Make sure you read directions. Wrong delivery could possibly kill animalLarge amounts of dosage should be spread to more than one siteCattle: up to mlHorses: up to 10-15Swine: up to 10-15Sheep/Goat: up to 5-10
9 Subcutaneous Subcutaneous (Sub Q): Fluid is deposited directly beneath the skin. Medication is absorbed slower than IM or OV. Used for hormone and some drugs.Easier to make injection where there are folds in the skin.Side of neck in cattle and horsesBehind the ear in swineUpper leg in sheepProper technique includes: Correct gauge, usually 20-25, 5/8-1” needle, and cleanliness
10 Subcutaneous Giving injection: Restrain animal Grasp skin firmly between thumb and forefinger, and then thrust needle firmly and quickly through all angles of skin and at a relatively flat angle.Pull plunger back to make sure not in veinAdminister slowly, remove needle, and massage injection site. This hastens the absorption of the medicine and prevents leakage from the injection site. Slight bulge evident under skin.
11 Subcutaneous Precautions: Same as IM If in muscle, large swelling or abscess can resultVolume of solution tat may be injected into one site:Cattle: mlSwine: 30mlSheep/Goat: 2-30ml
13 Intravenous Intravenous (IV): Fluid injected directly into bloodstream, bypassing absorption siteMost difficult to administer. Administered in the jugular of large animals, ear in rabbits and pigs, front leg in cats and dogsProper Technique:Restrain animalChoose proper size needle (18-20 gauge, 1-1 ½” needle)Shaving hair from injection site is a good practice and should be followed by disinfecting the skin
14 Intravenous Giving the Injection: Inject very slowly as they take into effect immediatelyInjection made by constricting vein and causing vein to swell. Digital pressure 2/3 way down from injection site to obstruct blood flow into one area. Vein is immediately obvious between thumb and restriction. Stroke to make more apparent if needed.With bevel point of needle pointed up insert at 30 degree angle into vein, blood will enter syringe. Undo obstructions and slowly inject.
15 Intravenous Precautions: Most dangerous to perform, should be done by experienced personsDrug action takes place in seconds after injection
17 Injections Other types of injections: Intraperitoneal (IP): Made through abdominal liningDifficult to administer properly and requires complete restraintIntraruminal (IR):Made through left flank region into rumenUsed in sheep and cattle to relieve bloat (Trokar also)Udder InfusionUsed in dairy cattle especially to prevent and treat mastitisInjected through teat