Presentation on theme: "Properly giving vaccinations 22.0 investigate approved practices of disease control 27.0 apply knowledge of animal anatomy and physiology to produce and."— Presentation transcript:
Properly giving vaccinations 22.0 investigate approved practices of disease control 27.0 apply knowledge of animal anatomy and physiology to produce and or manage animals in a domesticated or natural environment
Why is it better? Vaccines are fresher You know the proper dosage given It is less stressful for the animal
Pay attention to details Broad spectrum antibiotic, containing 200 mg of oxytetracycline per ml, for the treatment of diseases caused by susceptible gram-positive and gram- negative bacteria, including pinkeye, pneumonia and foot rot. For IM or SQ use in beef and dairy cattle and IM use in swine. 3-4 day blood and tissue levels. Dosage: 4-1/2 ml per 100 of body weight. 28- day slaughter withdrawal in cattle and swine. 96- hour milk withdrawal. Ready to use. No mixing, refrigeration or special handling needed. One dose delivers 3 days of sustained therapy. Fewer injections mean less labor and animal stress. Beef-Friendly SQ option is available to minimize risk of carcass blemish. Approved for use in lactating dairy cows. Administered by SQ or IV injection to beef and dairy cattle and calves, including pre-ruminating veal calves 96-hour milk discard, 28-day pre-slaughter withdrawal.
Steps to vaccinate Step 1 Tighten the needle on the syringe and insert it into the liquid vial. Withdraw all the liquid, unless it is a multi-dose vial. Then withdraw 1 ml (1 cc). Step 2 If a second vial contains freeze- dried or powdered portion of vaccine, inject the liquid into that vial. If there is no second vial, proceed to Step 4. Step 3 Remove needle and syringe and shake vial as shown for a few seconds to mix well. Insert the needle back into the vial and withdraw the entire mixed contents. Step 4 Inject any large amount of excess air in the syringe back into the vial. Remove the needle and syringe from the vial. You are now ready to give the vaccine.
Proper Techniques Pinch a fold of skin for SQ Use the correct needle size Administer in the correct location
Best Management Practices 1.Follow instructions. Make sure you read the label and follow all labeling information before administering any animal health product. Avoid intramuscular (IM) injections whenever other labeled routes of administration are available. 2. Use proper restraint when administering injections to cattle. Improper restraint is the leading cause of broken needles and tissue damage. 3. All IM injections, regardless of the animals age, must be given in the NECK only–no exceptions! When administering subcutaneous (SQ) injections, use the tenting technique (See Figure 1), and when possible, place the injection in the neck. 4. Use SQ, oral, intravenous (IV) or topical administration of antibiotics, vaccines and parasiticides when possible. 5.Never exceed 10cc in any injection site. For example, if 24cc is the recommended dose, use three 8cc injections instead of two 12cc injections. 6.If possible, do not place more than one SQ injection on the same side of the neck to avoid interaction of products or severe tissue reaction.
Best Management Practices 7. Properly space injections: a) 3 inches between injection sites on calves and yearlings. b) 4 inches between injection sites on cows and bulls. 8. Never mix products. Mixing products can cause unnecessary tissue damage, may reduce the effectiveness of the products administered or extend the withdrawal period before the animal can be sold and potentially go to a packing plant. 9. Use needles no larger than necessary. Proper needle size will vary depending on product viscosity, size of animal and route of administration (IM or SQ). a) 16-18 gauge 1/2- to 1-inch needles work well for SQ injections. b) 16-18 gauge 1- to 1 1/2-inch needles work well for IM injections 10. Protect needles from contamination. 11. Change your needle when it becomes contaminated or damaged. Change needles frequently (10 to 12 head per needle) to ensure minimal tissue damage from burrs and minimize the risk of carrying contaminant into the injection site. Change needles on every animal if a blood-borne pathogen (ie. anaplasmosis) is known to exist in your herd. If a needle bends, stop immediately and replace it. Do not straighten it and use it again. Bent needles are much more likely to break off in the animal.
DO THE MATH!!! A 550 lb. calf is sick with a respiratory disease and the vet recommends that the calf be treated with CALFBIOTIC. The directions on the bottle are as follows: Directions: inject subcutaneously in cattle only. Administer a single subcutaneous dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight. (1.5 ml/100lbs)
DO THE MATH!! 550 lbs x 1.5ml/100 lbs = 8.25ml What if the calf actually weighed 400 or 700 lbs? 400lbs x 1.5ml/100lbs = 6 ml 700lbs x 1.5ml/100lbs = 10.5 ml
Sub Cutaneous Vaccines Most vaccines may be given just beneath the skin. For dogs, the best and least sensitive area is the loose skin over either shoulder. Avoid the area between the shoulder blades. Simply lift the skin, insert the needle, pull back slightly on the syringe plunger to be sure the needle is not in a blood vessel (if it is, blood will enter the syringe as you pull back the plunger), and then administer the vaccine. This method is called subcutaneous (under the skin) vaccination.
Intramuscular Vaccines Some vaccines may also be given intramuscularly (into the muscle). However, if given the choice, the subcutaneous method described above is the easiest and safest way for you to administer vaccines. There are certain vaccines that must be given intramuscularly.
Intravenous Vaccines Usually given by a licensed veterinarian, however skilled individuals can administer intravenous vaccines. There are some antiobiotics and vaccines that must be given this way.
Intranasal vaccines Most intranasal vaccines need to be mixed like injectable vaccines. After mixing, the needle is removed and an adapter supplied by the manufacturer is placed on the end of the syringe. In some cases the vaccine is drawn up into a dropper. Generally the entire dose is given, half in each nostril. It is normal for animals to sneeze or shake their heads after the vaccine is given.
Safety Tips to remember With any vaccine or injectable medication, always use a separate sterile needle and syringe for each injection. Safely dispose of all used syringes and needles. Always have the cap in place on the needle when transporting it to ensure no one gets poked with the needle. NEVER play with used needles or syringes