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A Separate Peace by John Knowles

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1 A Separate Peace by John Knowles
Literary Devices

2 Allegory DEF = a novel, poem, play, picture, etc, in which the characters and events are used to symbolize a deeper moral or spiritual meaning - “a story within a story” EXAMPLES: Animal Farm – the whole story symbolizes The Russian Revolution The Lion, The Witch, and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis is seemingly just a story about children on an adventure in another world. But the story of Aslan (the lion) is an allegory for the Bible story of Jesus being crucified and rising from death.

3 Conflict DEF = a struggle
Internal Conflict = A struggle within one’s own mind External Conflict = A struggle against outside forces (i.e. nature, other people, etc.) EXAMPLE: In Macbeth by Shakespeare, Macbeth had an internal conflict over whether or not to kill Duncan, and he had an external conflict with Macduff.

4 Narrative Voice DEF = the persona (personality) of the person/character telling a story. It is important to understand narrative voice so we can understand the lens through which we’re seeing the story Example: Think about how a story would change from different character’s perspectives: How would Banquo’s narrative voice differ from Macbeth’s narrative voice?

5 Irony Dramatic Irony = when the audience knows something the characters do not know Situational Irony = when the outcome of a situation is the opposite of what was expected Verbal Irony = to say or write the opposite of what is actually meant (sarcasm) Purpose of all three – to engage the audience by creating tension, suspense, or humor

6 All three are examples of foils – and all for different reasons!
Literary Foil DEF = two characters who act and think oppositely (often when in similar situations) – the contrast of these characters helps us see the traits of each one more clearly EXAMPLE: In Macbeth we have multiple foils: Macbeth and Banquo Macbeth and Duncan Macbeth and Malcolm All three are examples of foils – and all for different reasons!

7 Juxtaposition DEF = the practice of placing two entities side by side for contrast – the purpose is to highlight an important idea or help us understand a deeper meaning EXAMPLE: What point could an artist be making by juxtaposing these two pictures?

8 Remember – analyzing DICTION helps us understand TONE!
DEF = The author’s attitude in a passage (this can sometimes be understood by looking at a character’s attitude) Example: Can you identify the tone? “Oh, yeah, I’m sure you really tried to make it to my dance recital,” snarked the teenager to her mother. “Excuse me, sir, but I think you dropped your glove,” said the young lady. Remember – analyzing DICTION helps us understand TONE!

9 Analyzing DICTION can also help us understand MOOD!
DEF = the overall emotion of a short passage or whole text Example: Can you identify the mood? In a dark forest near midnight, the isolated campers were sleeping when they suddenly heard a scratching noise outside of their tent. Analyzing DICTION can also help us understand MOOD!

10 Flashback DEF = when the story goes back (“flashes back”) to something that happened before the story began Example: In A Christmas Carol by Dickens, when Scrooge is visited by the Ghost of Christmas Past, we see a flashback of Scrooge’s youth.

11 Imagery DEF = descriptions that appeal to any or all of our five senses: sight, sound, taste, touch, and smell – imagery makes a text come alive for a reader Example: What senses are involved here? As Rachel bit into the crisp, juicy apple, the tart, sour flavor made her jaw ache just a little at the hinge.

12 ASP Background Quiz On a sheet of loose leaf paper, write down 10 important pieces of schema we’ve discussed for ASP. Number each so I know where to look for your “10”. Consider the following areas: What did we discuss about Gene (our main character?) Any setting details you remember? Places? Time Period? There were two rivers mentioned – what are their names? Can you describe each one? Who is the Author? On what experience did he base ASP? What the name of the school in the book? What’s it like?

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