2CharacterizationThe methods an author uses to acquaint a reader with the characters in a work. He or she might…describe the character’s physical traits and personalityreport the character’s speech and behaviorgive opinions and the reactions of other characters toward this individualreveal the character by describing the character’s feelings and thoughts.
3ProtagonistA protagonist is considered to be the main character or lead figure in a novel, play, story, or poem. It may also be referred to as the "hero" of a work. The action usually revolves around the protagonist.
4AntagonistThe character in a work of literature who opposes the main character.
5Types of CharactersDynamic Character- a character who develops or changes as a result of the actions of the plot.Static Character – a character who remains basically unchanged throughout a story.
6ConflictA struggle between opposing forces; conflicts can be external (outside forces) or internal (within a characters mind).
7External Conflict (Struggle with an outside force.) Man-vs-manMan-vs-natureMan-vs-animalMan-vs-society
8Internal Conflict (Takes place in the character’s mind.) Man-vs-Self
9Setting The time and the place of the story or novel. A story can be set in a realistic or imaginary place and can occur in the past, present,or future.
10Point of View The perspective from which the story is told. First Person- ‘I’: The narrator of the story is a character in the story that is telling the story from his own personal view. The story is told from the point of view of ‘I.’Second Person: When the author speaks directly to the reader.Third Person Limited- ‘He, she it”: Told like a reporter reporting the news or by an outsider who can see into the mind of one of the characters. This point of view can also be told by an outsider who can see into the minds of many characters (all knowing).
11Plot What happens 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and so on. The plot centers on at least one major problem called a conflict.
12Five Main Parts of the Plot Exposition or beginning: setting and introduction of main charactersRising Action: Initial incident, suspense, shows conflict or struggle, complications, details, sequence of eventsClimax: Greatest emotional response, turning point of the storyFalling Action: Following the climax, the intensity of the story may subside. The falling action describes the results of the major events as the action winds downResolution: Conflict, crisis, or struggle resolvedClimaxRising ActionFalling ActionResolutionExposition
13ExpositionThe opening of a short story or novel. It provides background information that the reader needs to know.It introduces the characters, describes the setting, and may recap important events before the action of the story.
14Rising ActionThe chain of events become more complex. The actions and feelings of the characters intensify as their problems become more complicated.Rising Action
15Climax The highest point of interest Where most action takes place in the storeInvolves an important event,decision, or discovery that affects the final outcome.
16Falling ActionFollowing the climax, the intensity of the story may subside.The falling action describes the results of the major events as the action winds down.Fallingaction
17Resolution The final part of the story. It tells how the story ends. All the loose ends are tied up.
18ThemeThe main idea that the author wishes to The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work. The theme includes the topic of the writing and a viewpoint or opinion about the topic. For example:Greed might be the subject. The theme might be, “Greed is destructive and evil.”Fighting might be the subject. The theme might be, “Fighting solves nothing.”It can be Universal;applying to you and the world.
19Factors that Influence Mood: A feeling or emotions that a writing or piece of literature stirs in the reader.Mood Words:HopelessnessOptimisimLonelinessDespairLongingEnthusiamHappinessPeacefulnessTerrorFactors that Influence Mood:SettingDetailsImagesDescription
20ToneThe approach or attitude that the writer takes toward the subject of the writing.Serene Hostile PlayfulAngry Serious TenderAmusing Informative Outraged Argumentative
21SymbolismSymbolism is using an object or a thing to stand for or to substitute for another thing. A symbol may be an object a person, and action, or a situation that suggests a meaning beyond its obvious meaning. For example:A heart might be used to symbolize love andaffectionA knife might be used to symbolizea robber, warrior, or hunter
22IronyIrony is the contrast between what is expected to happen and what actually happens.
23ImageryImagery can be created by details in the story that appeal to the senses of sight, sound, touch, smell, and taste.Sweet, slow drops of rich orange juice drip from the corners of my mouth and drool off my chin.
24SuspenseSuspense is created through the reader’s uncertainty about the character’s ability to solve a problem, conflict, or crisis.
25Figurative Language Simile Metaphor Hyperbole Personification Figurative language uses comparisons to express a relationship between essentially unlike thingsSimileMetaphorHyperbolePersonification
26Examples of Figurative Language Simile: Compares two unlike things using like or as: My heart soared like an eagle.Metaphor: Am implied comparison between two relatively unlike things without using like or as: The jealous girls were a bunch of tigers ready to pounce.Hyperbole: The comparison by using an exaggerated statement: I’m so tired, I could sleep a hundred years!Personification: Compares by giving human characteristics to non-human things: The river reached for me with icy fingers.
27FlashbackA device that allows the writer to present events that happened before the time of the current narration or the current events in the fiction. Flashback techniques include memories, dreams, stories of the past told by characters, or even authorial sovereignty.Flashback is useful for exposition, to fill in the reader about a character or place, or about the background to a conflict.
28ForeshadowingAn author’s way of hinting or giving clues to the reader of events or developments that might come ater in the story.