(1.)Tundra Found in the far northern latitudes. –Winter lasts 10 months –Short growing season –Permafrost- The layer of soil beneath the surface that stays frozen. Barrow, Alaska Source: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration
Tundra (1.)TUNDRA -Average Yearly Rainfall 30 to 50 cm (12 to 20 in.) -Average Temperatures Summer: 12ºC (54ºF) Winter: −26ºC (−15ºF) - Polar Tundra- near North and South Pole -Alpine Tundra: similar to polar tundra but found on tops of tall mountains. Gets sunlight and precipitation. -Consumers: oxen, caribou, artic foxes -Producers: moss, grass
(2.)Taiga (Coniferous Forest) Located in cooler northern climates (south of the tundra). –long winters and short summers (14ºF in winter to 57ºF in summer) –Evergreen trees are conifers (cone shaped, with needles) Source: Environment Canada Banff, Canada
(2.)Taiga (Coniferous Forest) Animals- finches, elk, moose, bear Few plants can grow beneath the trees. Very little light reaches the ground floor. Conifer trees keep their leaves year round and have a waxy coat to: –prevent the leaves from drying out –protect the needles from being damaged by the cold weather
–Temperate grasslands are dry and warm during the summer; most precipitation falls as snow. –Animals: prairie dogs, mice, small seeding eating animals (3.) Grassland biomes are where the primary plant life is grass, lots of grazing animals, rich fertile soil, warm temperatures. –Savannahs are warm through the year, with definite dry and rainy seasons. Found on every continent but Antarctica. –Herbivores: zebras, giraffe, gazelles Carnivores- lions
(3.)Temperate Grassland Average Yearly Rainfall 25 to 75 cm (10 to 29.5 in.) Average Temperatures 86ºF (Summer) and 32ºF (Winter) Savanna Average yearly rainfall 150cm (59 in) Average temperate: 93ºF (Dry season) and 61ºF (Wet season)
(4.) Desert biomes are characterized by a very arid climate. –Four types: hot, semi-arid, coastal, and cold –Plants grow far apart & roots grow near the surface so they don’t compete for water. Tucson, Arizona Source: National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration
(4.)Desert -Average Yearly Rainfall less than 25 cm (10 in.) -Average Temperatures Summer: 38ºC (100ºF) Winter: 7ºC (45ºF) - Fleshly stems and leaves help the cactus store water -Animals are active at night to prevent water loss(ex. toads, jack rabbits, owls)
(5.) Tropical rain forest biomes produce lush forests. –1,400 species of birds live in the canopy (treetops) –Nutrients is mostly found in the plants. Soil is thin so roots grow above the ground. Source: World Meteorological Organization
(5.)Tropical Rain Forest Average Yearly Rainfall up to 400 cm (157.5 in.) Average Temperatures Daytime: 34ºC (93ºF) Nighttime: 20ºC (68ºF)
(6.) Temperate deciduous forests have hot summers and cold winters. Latin word= “fall off”. –Deciduous trees are the dominant plant species. –These trees lose their leaves in the autumn/fall to conserve water. –Variety of animals: bears, snakes, woodpecker, fox
(6.)Temperate Deciduous Forest Average Yearly Rainfall 75 to 125 cm (29.5 to 49 in.) Average Temperatures Summer: 28ºC (82ºF) Winter: 6ºC (43ºF)
–Intertidal Zone- ocean meets the land, waves are crashing, animals have adapted to survive exposure to air and being washed away. –Neritic Zone—water becomes deeper, ocean floor starts to slope downward, water is warm. Animals include fish, dolphins, coral. –Oceanic Zone- this zone contains deep water, animals in this zone live in very deep water and get food that sinks down from the ocean surface. –Benthic Zone- this is the ocean floor, deepest part of this zone does not get any sunlight (very cold), animals in this zone have a special adaptation to deep, dark water. Marine ecosystems Ocean zones can be determined by their distance from shoreline and water depths.
Oceans Oceans cover almost 3/4 ths of the Earth’s surface. Oceans hold some of the largest and smallest organisms on Earth. Through evaporation, the ocean provides most of the water that makes up Earth’s precipitation. Ocean temperatures and currents affect world climes and wind patterns.
Estuary Definition: an area where fresh water from rivers mixes with salt water from the ocean. Plants and animals that live here but be able to survive the changing salt concentrations.
Estuaries are dynamic environments where rivers flow into the ocean. An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water. Ex. Chesapeake Bay, Louisiana Bayous
Estuaries are highly productive ecosystems. Estuaries provide a protected refuge for many species. –birds migration –spawning grounds Estuaries are primarily threatened by land development.
Freshwater Streams and rivers- consists of fresh water systems that flow across Earth’s surface. Most begin as cold stream from melting ice or snow on a mountain. Ponds and lakes- flow slowly, if at all. Algae floating near the surface are the major producers. Wetlands and marshes- water covers the soil or is near the soil’s surface.